Impacts and Risks of Global Warming

  • Atsunobu Ichikawa


Climate changes caused by human activities include long-term temperature increases, changes in precipitation amounts and rainfall patterns, and rising sea levels, as well as short-term changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events. All have serious impacts on natural ecosystems and human societies (IPCC, 2001; Ministry of the Environment, 2001).


Global Warming Coral Reef Human Society Research Challenge Coral Bleaching 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alward, R.D. and J.K. Detling, 1999: Grassland vegetation changes and nocturnal global warming. Science, 283, 229–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arendt, A.A., K.A. Echelmeyer, W.D. Harrison, C.S. Lingle, and V.B. Valentine, 2002: Rapid wastage of Alaska glaciers and their contribution to rising sea level. Science, 297, 382–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bradley, N.L., A.C. Leopold, J. Ross, and W. Huffaker, 1999: Phenological changes reflect climate change in Wisconsin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 96, 9701–9704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown, J.H., T.J. Valone, and C.G. Curtin, 1997: Reorganization of an arid ecosystem in response to recent climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 94, 9729–9733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dettinger, M.D. and D.R. Cayan, 1995: Large-scale atmospheric forcing of recent trends toward early snowmelt runoff in California. Journal of Climate, 8, 606–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fitter, A.H. and R.S.R. Fitter, 2002: Rapid changes in flowering time in British plants. Science, 296, 1689–1691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gleick, P., 2000: The World Water 2000–2001. Island Press, 315 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Gonzalez, P., 2001: Desertification and a shift of forest species in the West African Sahel. Climate Research, 17 (2), 217–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Grabherr, G., M. Gottfried, and H. Pauli, 1994: Climate effects on mountain plants. Nature, 369, 448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hamburg, S.P. and C.V. Cogbill, 1988: Historical decline of red spruce population and climatic warming. Nature, 331, 428–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hasenauer, H., R.R. Nemani, K. Schadauer, and S.W. Running, 1999: Forest growth response to changing climate between 1961 and 1990 in Austria. Forest Ecology and Management, 122, 209–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Harasawa, H. and S. Nishioka, 2003. Global Warming Impacts on Japan, kokonshoin, 411pp. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  13. Horie,T., H.Nakagawa, M.Ohnishi and J.Nakano, 1995: Rice production in Japan under current and future climates. In:Mathews. R.B. et al. (eds.) Modelling the Impacts of Climate Change on Rice in Asia, CAB International, Oxon, U.K. 143–164.Google Scholar
  14. IPCC, 1994: IPCC Technical Guidelines for Assessing Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation. T.R. Carter et al. ed., University College London and Center for Global Environmental Research, 59pp.Google Scholar
  15. IPCC, 1996: Climate Change 1995 - Impacts, Adaptations, and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses. R. T. Watson et al. ed., Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 878 pp.Google Scholar
  16. IPCC, 1998: The Regional Impacts of Climate change -An Assessment of Vulnerability. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 517 pp.Google Scholar
  17. IPCC, 2001: Climate Chang 2001 - Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. J. J. McCarthy et at. ed., Cambridge Univ. Press, 1032 pp.Google Scholar
  18. Ishigami, Y., Y. Shimizu, and K. Omasa, 2001: Prediction of changes in vegetation distribution in Japan using process based model and GCM data. Proceeding of LUCC Symposium 2001.Google Scholar
  19. Kainuma, M., Y. Matsuoka, and T. Morita, 2002: Climate Policy Assessment Asia-Pacific Integrated Modeling. Spriger, 402 pp.Google Scholar
  20. Masuda, K., M. Yoshino, and K. Park, 1999: Detection of global warming impacts using biophenology, Global Environment, 4 (1&2), 91–103. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  21. Menzel, A. and P. Fabian, 1999: Growing season extended in Europe. Nature, 397, 659. Mimura, N. and E. Kawaguchi, 1996:Responses of coastal topography to sea-level rise. Proc. of 25th ICCE, 1161–1165.Google Scholar
  22. Ministry of the Environment, 2001: Climate Change 2001 IPCC Third Assessment Report — Summary for Policy Makers, 91pp. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  23. NAST (National Assessment Synthesis Team), 2001: Climate Change Impacts on the United States. The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change. 612 pp.Google Scholar
  24. National Land Preservation Study Group for Sea-Level Rise Accompanying Global Warming, 2002: Report of the Study Group, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, 12pp., with Appendix 68 pp. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  25. Ohosaka, S., 1996: Climate and electricity operation — meteorological observation and systematic operation in electric power supply, Electrical Review, 12, 15–18. (in Japanese) Parmesan, C., 1996: Climate and species range. Nature, 382, 765–766.Google Scholar
  26. Penueleas, J. and I. Filella, 2001: Response to a warming world. Science, 294, 793–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Research Committee on National Land Conservation to Sea Level Rise due to Global Warming, 2002: Report of Research Committee on National Land Conservation to Sea Level Rise due to Global Warming. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  28. UNEP, 2002: Scholar
  29. USCSP, 1999: Climate Change Mitigation, Vulnerability, and Adaptation in Developing and Transition Countries. 96p+Appendix.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Atsunobu Ichikawa
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Council for Science and Technology PolicyThe Government of JapanTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Tokyo Institute of TechnologyTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations