Observations on Lichens Growing on Artifacts in the Indian Subcontinent

  • S. Saxena
  • D. K. Upreti
  • Ajay Singh
  • K. P. Singh


A detailed account of lichens growing on different artifacts in the Indian subcontinent is provided. Some interesting distributional and ecological patterns of lichens growing on historical monuments and buildings are also presented.


Lichens man-made substrata India historical monuments 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arnold, F.C.G. (1875) Die lichenen des Fränkischen Juras. Flora, Jena 58: 524–528.Google Scholar
  2. Bech-Anderson, J. (1986) Biodeterioration of natural and artificial stone caused by algae, lichens, mosses and higher plants. Proceedings of the VIth International Biodeterioration Symposium: 126–131. Washington.Google Scholar
  3. Bravery, A.F. (1981) Preservation in the construction industry. In: Principles and Practice of Disinfection, Preservation and Sterilization ( A.D. Russell. W.B. Hugo and G.A.J. Ayliffe, ed): 379–402. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.Google Scholar
  4. Brightman, F.H. and Seaward, M.R.D. (1978) Lichens of man-made substrates. In: Lichen Ecology ( M.R.D. Seaward, ed): 253–293. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  5. Chaffer, R.J. (1972) The Weathering of Natural Stones. DSIR Building Research Special Report No. 18, London.Google Scholar
  6. Chatterjee, S., Singh, A. and Sinha, G.P. (1995) Lichens from some monuments in Karnataka and Orrisa, India. Geophytology 25: 81–88.Google Scholar
  7. Del Monte, M. (1991) Trajan’s Column: lichens don’t live here anymore. Endeavour 15: 86–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Del Monte, M. and Sabbioni, C. (1983) Weddellite on limestone in the Venice environment. Environmental Science and Technology 17: 518–522.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Del Monte, M., Sabbioni, C. and Zappia, G. (1987) A study of patina called `scialbatura’ on imperial Roman marbles. Studies in Conservation 32: 114–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gairola, T.R. (1968) Examples of the preservation of monuments in India. In: The Conservation of the Cultural Property: 139–152. UNESCO. Rome.Google Scholar
  11. Gayathri, P. (1980) Effects of lichens on granite statues. Birla Archeological Cultural Research Institute Research Bulletin 2: 41–52.Google Scholar
  12. Gehrman, C.K., Peterson, K. and Krumbein, W.E. (1988) Silicole and calcicole lichens on the Jewish tombstones — interactions with environment and biocorrosion. In: IVth International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, supplement: 33–38. Nicholas Copernicus University, Torun.Google Scholar
  13. Hale, M.E. (1975) Control of biological growth on Mayan archeological ruins in Guatemala and Honduras. National Geographic Society Research Reports, 1975 Projects. 305–321.Google Scholar
  14. Hyvert, G. (1978) Weathering and restoration of Borobudur Temple, Indonesia. In: Decay and Preservation of Stone (E.M. Winkler, ed): 95–100. Engineering Geology Case Histories No. 11. Geological Society of America, Boulder.Google Scholar
  15. Jones, D. and Wilson, M.J. (1985) Chemical activity of lichens on mineral surfaces — a review. International Biodeterioration 21: 99–104.Google Scholar
  16. Jones, D., Wilson, M.J. and Tait, J.M. (1980) Weathering of basalt by Pertusaria corallina. The Lichenologist 12: 277–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Keen, R. (1976) Controlling Algae and other Growths on Concrete. Advisory Note 45. 020. Cement and Concrete Association, Slough.Google Scholar
  18. Krumbein, W.E. (1987) Microbial interaction with mineral materials. In: Biodeterioration 7 ( D.R. Houghton, R.N. Smith and H.O.W. Eggins, eds.): 78–100. Elsevier Applied Science, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  19. Lal, B.B. (1970) Indian rock paintings and their preservation. In: Aboriginal Antiquities in Australia: their nature and preservation (F.D. McCarthy, ed): 139–146. Australian Aboriginal Studies no. 22, Canberra.Google Scholar
  20. Lloyd, A.O. (1973) Lichen attack on marble at Torcello-Venice. In: Atti Congresso Petrolio e Ambriente Congresso: 221–224. Artioli, Modena.Google Scholar
  21. Lucking, R. (1998) `Plalticolous’ lichens in a tropical rain forest at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. The Lichenologist 30: 287–290.Google Scholar
  22. Riederer, J. (1981) The restoration of archeological monuments in Sri Lanka. In: The Conservation of Stone-II ( Riederer, J, ed): 737–757. Bologna.Google Scholar
  23. Riederer, J. (1984) The restoration of archeological monuments in the tropical climate. In: ICOM Committee for Conservation. 7th Triennial Meeting. Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  24. Saiz-Jimenez, C. (1981) Weathering of the building materials of the Giralda (Seville, Spain) by lichens. In: ICOM Committee for Conservation, 6th Triennial Meeting, Working Group: Stone. Ottawa.Google Scholar
  25. Salvadori, O. and Zitelli, A. (1981) Monohydrate and dihydrate calcium oxalate in living lichen incrustations biodeteriorating marble columns of the Basilica of Santa Maria Assunta on the Island of Torcello (Venice). In: Conservation of Stone. Part A: Deterioration ( R. Rossi-Manaresi, ed): 379–390. Manaresi. Bologna.Google Scholar
  26. Schaerer, L.E. (1850) Enumeratio lichenum Europaeorum. Staemplf, Bern.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Schatz, A. (1963) Soil microorganisms and soil chelation. The pedogenic action of lichens and lichens acids. Agricultural and Food Chemistry 11: 112–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Schatz, A., Cheronis, N.D., Schatz, V. and Trelawny, G.S. (1954) Chelation (sequestration) as a biological weathering factor in pedogenesis. Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science 4: 233–239.Google Scholar
  29. Seshadri, T.R. and Subramanian, S.S. (1949) A lichen (Parmelia tinctorum) on a Java monument. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 8: 170–171.Google Scholar
  30. Singh, A. and Dhawan, S. (1991) Interesting observation on stone weathering of an Indian monument by lichen. Geophytology 21: 119–123.Google Scholar
  31. Singh, A. and Sinha, G.P. (1993) Corrosion of natural and monument stone with special reference to lichen activity. In: Recent Advances in Biodeterioration and Biodegradation. Volume 1. ( K.L. Grag, N. Garg and K. G. Mukerji. eds): 355–377. Naya Prokash, Calcutta.Google Scholar
  32. Singh, A. and Upreti, D.K. (1984) The lichen genus Endocarpon from India. Candollea 39: 39–548.Google Scholar
  33. Sipman, H.J.M. (1994) Foliicolous lichens on plastic tape. The Lichenologist 26: 311–312. Swindale, L.D. and Jackson, M.L. (1956) Genetic process in some residual podzolised soils of New Zealand. Transactions of the 6th International Congress on Soil Science 4: 233–239.Google Scholar
  34. Upreti, D.K. (1988) A new species of lichen genus Phylliscum from India. Current Science 57: 906–907.Google Scholar
  35. Upreti, D.K. and Büdel, B. (1990) The lichen genera Heppia and Peltula in India. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 68: 274–284.Google Scholar
  36. Upreti, D.K. and Dixit, A. (2002) Lichens on plastic net. British Lichen Society Bulletin 90: 66–67.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Saxena
    • 1
  • D. K. Upreti
    • 1
  • Ajay Singh
    • 1
  • K. P. Singh
    • 2
  1. 1.Lichenology LaboratoryPlant Biodiversity and Conservation Biology Research Institute Division National BotanicalLucknow-1India
  2. 2.Botanical Survey of India, Central CircleAllahabadIndia

Personalised recommendations