In this paper I revise and expand formulations which distinguished among a number of different types of body movements and facial expressions (Ekman and Friesen 1969). Some of the terminology and most of the conceptual distinctions have been preserved, but refinements and expansions have benefited from empirical findings and theoretical developments. The crucial issue remains to distinguish among quite different activities, which are shown in facial and/or bodily movement, but which have quite different functions, origins and coding.
- Facial Expression
- Nonverbal Behavior
- Facial Movement
- Facial Action Code System
- Universal Expression
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Ekman, P. (2004). Emotional and Conversational Nonverbal Signals. In: Larrazabal, J.M., Miranda, L.A.P. (eds) Language, Knowledge, and Representation. Philosophical Studies Series, vol 99. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-2783-3_3
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