Mitochondrial Morphology, Dynamics and Inheritance
The first eukaryotes are thought to have arisen around 2 billion years ago through symbiosis of an archaebacterial host cell and a eubacterial symbiont (mitochondrial ancestor). The mitochondrion we know today is the result, therefore, of 2 billion years of evolution of this symbiosis. Like modern day bacteria, mitochondria cannot be created de novo but instead must arise from the fission (division) of a parental organelle. In addition to fission, mitochondria also fuse with one another and it is thought that a co-ordinated balance of these two processes controls mitochondrial shape, size and number. In the past five to seven years, molecular genetics coupled to state-of-the-art cell biology, in particular the use of mitochondrial-targeted GFP, has enabled identification of proteins controlling mitochondrial shape, size and number in yeast and mammalian cells. Whilst little is known about higher plant mitochondrial dynamics several genes involved in the control of plant mitochondrial dynamics have been identified recently.
KeywordsStarch Glycerol Chlorophyll Serine Cytosol
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bereiter-Hahn J and Voth M (1983) Metabolic control of shape and structure of mitochondria in situ. Biol Cell 47: 309–322Google Scholar
- Caggese C, Ragone G, Perrini B, Moschetti R, De Pinto V, Caizzi R and Barsanti P (1999) Identification of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins: isolation of a collection of D. melanogaster cDNAs homologous to sequences in the Human Gene Index database. Mol Gen Genet 261: 64–70Google Scholar
- Chalfie M and Kain S (1998) Green Fluorescent Protein: Properties, Applications and Protocols. Wiley-Liss, Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Hong Z, Bednarek SY, Blumwald E, Hwang I, Jurgens G, Menzel D, Osteryoung KW, Raikhel NV, Shinozaki K, Tsutsumi N and Verma DPS (2003) A unified nomenclature for Arabidopsis dynamin-related large GTPases based on homology and possible functions. Plant Mol Biol 53: 261–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jamet-Vierny C, Contamine V, Boulay J, Zickler D and Picard M (1997) Mutations in genes encoding the mitochondrial outer membrane proteins Tom70 and MdmlO of Podospora anse-rina modify the spectrum of mitochondrial DNA rearrangements associated with cellular death. Mol Cell Biol 17: 6359–6366PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lloyd D (1974) The Mitochondria of Microorganisms. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Munn EA (1974) The Structure of Mitochondria. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Shepard KA and Yaffe MP (1997) Genetic and molecular analysis of Mdml4p and Mdml7p, proteins involved in organelle inheritence. Molec Biol Cell 8: 2585Google Scholar
- Tyler DD (1992) The Mitochondrion in Health and Disease. VCH Publishing, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
- Tzagoloff A (1982) Mitochondria. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar