Towards Structured Public Involvement: Enhancing Community Involvement in Transportation Decision Making

  • Keiron Bailey
  • Ted Grossardt


Although it is increasingly regarded as essential, public involvement in infrastructure decision-making has a highly problematic history. Public skepticism about the activities and motivations of planning and design professionals remains high. Arnstein’s (1969) famous “Ladder of Citizen Participation” is still a useful way of characterizing levels of public involvement, ranging from the ideal of “citizen control” to creeping “manipulation” by officials and powerful interest groups. While infrastructure problems involve a range of stakeholder groups and span a variety of scales, from the neighborhood transit-station design to large-scale regional highway-corridor selection, in many cases the public involvement processes and associated problems are similar.


Public Involvement Geographic Information System Citizen Participation Public Preference Design Professional 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Keiron Bailey
    • 1
  • Ted Grossardt
    • 2
  1. 1.University of ArizonaUSA
  2. 2.Kentucky Transportation CenterUSA

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