Advertisement

The Influence of Parent and Peer Attachments on Life Satisfaction in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence

  • Amanda B. Nickerson
  • Richard J. Nagle
Chapter
Part of the Social Indicators Research Series book series (SINS, volume 23)

Abstract

Satisfaction in different life domains was examined with respect to parent and peer attachment relationships in middle childhood and early adolescence. Three hundred three students, evenly distributed across sex and grade (fourth, sixth, and eighth) were administered People in My Life, a measure of attachment relationships, and the Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale. Children and early adolescents in this sample generally reported high levels of life satisfaction. Some sex and grade differences in satisfaction with various life domains emerged. Attachments to both parents and peers predicted life satisfaction, although the influence of these relationships varied as a function of grade level and life domain. Findings are reviewed in relation to past research, and implications for professional practice are discussed.

Key Words

attachment early adolescence life satisfaction parents peers 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ainley, J., J. Foreman and M. Sheret: 1991, ‘High school factors that influence students to remain in school’, Journal of Educational Research 85, pp. 69–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ainsworth, M.D.S.: 1989, ‘Attachments beyond infancy’, American Psychologist 44, pp. 709–716.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ainsworth, M.D.S.: 1991, ‘Attachments and other affectional bonds across the life cycle’, in C.M. Parkes, J. Stevenson-Hinde and P. Marris (eds.), Attachment Across the Life Cycle (Tavistock/Routledge, New York), pp. 33–51.Google Scholar
  4. Allen, J.P. and D. Land: 1999, ‘Attachment in adolescence’, in J. Cassidy and P.R. Shaver (eds.), Handbook of Attachment: Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications (Guilford, New York), pp. 319–335.Google Scholar
  5. American Association of University Women: 1991, Shortchanging Girls, Shortchanging America: Executive Summary (American Association of University Women, Washington DC).Google Scholar
  6. Armsden, G.C. and M.T. Greenberg: 1987, ‘The inventory of parent and peer attachment: Individual differences and their relationships to psychological wellbeing in adolescence’, Journal of Youth and Adolescence 16, pp. 427–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arnett, J.J.: 1999, ‘Adolescent storm and stress, reconsidered’, American Psychologist 54, pp. 317–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bartholomew, K.: 1990, ‘Avoidance of intimacy: An attachment perspective’, Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 7, pp. 147–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bartholomew, K.: 1993, ‘From childhood to adult relationships: Attachment theory and Research’, in S. Duck (ed.), Learning About Relationships (Sage, Newbury Park, CA), pp. 30–62.Google Scholar
  10. Berndt, T.J.: 1989, ‘Obtaining support from friends during childhood and adolescence’, in D. Belle (ed.), Children’s Social Networks and Social Support (John Wiley and Sons, New York), pp. 308–331.Google Scholar
  11. Berndt, T.J. and T.B. Perry: 1990, ‘Distinctive feature and effects of early adolescent Friendships’, in R. Montemayor, G.R. Adams and T.P. Gullotta (eds.), From Childhood to Adolescence: A Transitional Period? (Sage, Newbury Park, CA), pp. 269–287.Google Scholar
  12. Bowlby, J.: 1958, ‘The nature of the child’s tie to his mother’, International Journal of Psychoanalysis 35, pp. 350–373.Google Scholar
  13. Bretherton, I.: 1985, ‘Attachment theory: Retrospect and prospect’, in I. Bretherton and E. Waters (eds.), Growing Points of Attachment Theory and Research, Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 50, pp. 3–35.Google Scholar
  14. Bretherton, I.: 1992, ‘The origins of attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth’, Developmental Psychology 28, pp. 759–775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Buhrmester, D.: 1990, ‘Intimacy of friendship, interpersonal competence, and adjustment during middle childhood and adolescence’, Child Development 61, pp. 1101–1111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bukowski, W.M., B. Hoza and M. Boivin: 1993, ‘Popularity, friendship, and emotional adjustment during early adolescence’, in W. Damon (series ed.) and B. Laurson (vol. ed.), New Directions for Child Development: Vol. 60. Close Friendships in Adolescence (Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA), pp. 23–37.Google Scholar
  17. Cashwell, C.S. and N.A. Vacc: 1996, ‘Family functioning and risk behaviors: Influences on adolescent delinquency’, School Counselor 44, pp. 105–114.Google Scholar
  18. Clark, R.D. and G. Shields: 1997, ‘Family communication and delinquency’, Adolescence 32, pp. 81–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cook, E.T., M.T. Greenberg and C.A. Kusche: 1995, ‘People in My Life: Attachment relationships in middle childhood’, poster presented at the Society for Research in Child Development (Indianapolis, IN).Google Scholar
  20. Cotterell, J.L.: 1992, ‘The relation of attachments and support to adolescent wellbeing and school adjustment’, Journal of Adolescent Research 7, pp. 28–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cowen, E.L. and W.C. Work: 1988, ‘Resilient children, psychological wellness, and primary Prevention’, American Journal of Community Psychology 16, pp. 591–607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Crowell, J.A., R.C. Fraley and P.R. Shaver: 1999, ‘Measurement of individual differences in adolescent and adult attachment’, in J. Cassidy and P.R. Shaver (eds.), Handbook of Attachment: Theory, Research, and Clinical applications (Guilford, New York), pp. 434–465.Google Scholar
  23. Diener, E.: 1994, ‘Assessing subjective well-being: Progress and opportunities’, Social Indicators Research 31, pp. 103–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Doll, B. and M.A. Lyon: 1998, ‘Risk and resilience: Implications for the delivery of educational and mental health services in schools’ , School Psychology Review 27, pp. 348–363.Google Scholar
  25. Eccles, J.S., C. Midgley, A. Wigfield, R.M. Buchanan, D. Reuman, C. Flanagan and D. Maclver: 1993, ‘Development during adolescence: The impact of stageenvironment fit on young adolescents’ experiences in schools and families’, American Psychologist 48, pp. 90–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Elicker, J., M. Englund and L.A. Sroufe: 1992, ‘Predicting peer competence and peer relationships in childhood from early parent-child relationships’, in R.D. Parke and G.W. Ladd (eds.), Family-Peer Relationships: Modes of Linkage (Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ), pp. 77–106.Google Scholar
  27. Furman, W.: 1989, ‘The development of children’s social networks’, in D. Belle (ed.), Children’s Social Networks and Social Support (John Wiley and Sons, New York), pp. 151–172.Google Scholar
  28. Furman, W.: 1993, ‘Theory is not a four-letter word: Needed directions in the study of adolescent friendships’, in B. Laursen (ed.), Close Friendships in Adolescence: New Directions for Child Development, 60 (Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA), pp. 89–103.Google Scholar
  29. Greenspoon, P.J. and D.H. Saklofske: 1997, ‘Validity and reliability of the multidimensional students’ life satisfaction scale with Canadian children’, Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 15, pp. 138–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Halpern, D.F.: 1997, ‘Sex differences in intelligence: Implications for education’, American Psychologist 52, pp. 1091–1102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hartup, W.W.: 1989, ‘Social relationships and their developmental significance’, American Psychologist 44, pp. 120–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hartup, W.W.: 1996, ‘The company they keep: Friendships and their developmental significance’, Child Development 67, pp. 1–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hazan, C. and P.R. Shaver: 1987, ‘Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52, pp. 511–524.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hazan, C. and P.R. Shaver: 1994, ‘Attachment as an organizational framework for research on close relationships’, Psychological Inquiry 5, pp. 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Homel, R. and A. Burns: 1989, ‘Environmental quality and the wellbeing of children’, Social Indicators Research 21, pp. 133–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Huebner, E.S.: 1991a, ‘Correlates of life satisfaction in children’, School Psychology Quarterly 6, pp. 103–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Huebner, E.S.: 1991b, ‘Initial development of the Student’s Life Satisfaction Scale’, School Psychology International 12, pp. 231–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Huebner, E.S.: 1994, ‘Preliminary development and validation of a multidimensional life satisfaction scale for children’, Psychological Assessment 6, pp. 149–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Huebner, E.S.: 1995, ‘The students’ life satisfaction scale: An assessment of psychometric properties with black and white elementary school students’, Social Indicators Research 34, pp. 315–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Huebner, E.S.: 1997, ‘Life satisfaction and happiness’, in G.G. Bear, K.M. Minke and A. Thomas (eds.), Children’s Needs II: Development, Problems, and Alternatives (National Association of School Psychologists, Bethesda, MD), pp. 271–278.Google Scholar
  41. Huebner, E.S. and T. Dew: 1996, ‘The interrelationship of positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction in an adolescent sample’, Social Indicators Research 38, pp. 129–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Huebner, E.S., W. Drane and R.F. Valois: 2000, ‘Levels and demographic correlates of adolescent life satisfaction reports’, School Psychology International 21, pp. 281–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Huebner, E.S., J.E. Laughlin, C. Ash and R. Gilman: 1998, Further validation of the Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale’, Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 16, pp. 118–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kaufman, P., S. Klein and M. Frase: 1999, Dropout Rates in the United States: 1997 (U.S. Department of Education, Washington, DC).Google Scholar
  45. Lempers, J.D. and D.S. Clark-Lempers: 1992, ‘Young, middle, and late adolescents’ comparisons of the functional importance of five significant relationships’, Journal of Youth and Adolescence 21, pp. 53–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mahoney, J.L. and H. Stattin: 2000, ‘Leisure activities and adolescent antisocial behavior: The role of structure and social context’, Journal of Adolescence 23, pp. 113–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Man, P.: 1991, ‘The influence of peers and parents on youth life satisfaction in Hong Kong’, Social Indicators Research 24, pp. 347–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McFadyen-Ketchum, S. A. and K.A. Dodge: 1998, ‘Problems in social relationships’, in E.J. Mash and R.A. Barkley (eds.), Treatment of Childhood Disorders: Second Edition (Guilford, New York), pp. 338–365.Google Scholar
  49. Montemayor, R. and D.J. Flannery: 1990, ‘Making the transition from childhood to early adolescence’, in R. Montemayor, G.R. Adams and T.P. Gullotta (eds.), From Childhood to Adolescence: A Transitional Period? (Sage, Newbury Park, CA), pp. 269–287.Google Scholar
  50. Newcomb, A.F. and C.L. Bagwell: 1995, ‘Children’s friendship relations: A metaanalytic review’, Psychological Bulletin 117, pp. 306–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Paikoff, R.L. and J. Brooks-Gunn: 1991, ‘Do parent-child relationships change during puberty?’, Psychological Bulletin 110, pp. 47–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Paterson, J.E., J. Field and J. Pryor: 1994, ‘Adolescents’ perceptions of their attachment relationships with their mothers, fathers, and friends’, Journal of Youth and Adolescence 23, pp. 579–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Petito, F. and R.A. Cummins: 2000, ‘Quality of life in adolescence: The role of perceived control, parenting style, and social support’, Behaviour Change 17, pp. 196–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pollack, W.: 1998, Real Boys: Rescuing our Sons From the Myths of Boyhood (Henry Holt, New York).Google Scholar
  55. Rice, K.G.: 1990, ‘Attachment in adolescence: A narrative and meta-analytic review’, Journal of Youth and Adolescence 19, pp. 511–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rosenfield, L.B., J.M. Richman and G.L. Bowen: 2000, ‘Social support networks and school outcomes: The centrality of the teacher’, Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal 17, pp. 205–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Seligman, M.E.P.: 1999, ‘Teaching positive psychology’, APA Monitor, p. 42.Google Scholar
  58. Sroufe, L.A.: 1989, ‘Pathways to adaptation and maladaptation: Psychopathology as developmental deviation’, in D. Cicchetti (ed.), The Emergence of a Discipline: Rochester Symposium on Developmental Psychopathology, Vol. 1 (Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ), pp. 13–40.Google Scholar
  59. Steinberg, A.: 1993, Adolescents and Schools: Improving the Fit (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA).Google Scholar
  60. Terry, T. and E.S. Huebner: 1995, ‘The relationship between self-concept and life satisfaction in children’, Social Indicators Research 35, pp. 39–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. U.S. Department of Education: 1990, National Center for Education Statistics, National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988: First Followup Study, 1990 (U.S. Department of Education, Washington, DC).Google Scholar
  62. Vazsonyi, A.T. and D.J. Flannery: 1997, ‘Early adolescent delinquent behaviors: Associations with family and school domains’, Journal of Early Adolescence 17, pp. 271–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Vernon, A. and R.H Al-Mabuk: 1995, What Growing Up is All About: A Parent’s Guide to Child and Adolescent Development (Research Press, Champaign, IL).Google Scholar
  64. Wilgenbusch, T. and K.W. Merrell: 1999, ‘Gender differences in self-concept among children and adolescents: A meta-analysis of multidimensional studies’, School Psychology Quarterly 14, pp. 101–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amanda B. Nickerson
    • 1
  • Richard J. Nagle
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology ED 232University at Albany - State University of New YorkAlbanyUSA

Personalised recommendations