As it was shown in Chapter 6 the probability of failure is a very sensitive to the exact shapes of the probability density function of the stress and strength, respectively. This gave rise to a non-probabilistic safety factor, proposed in the Chapter 6. Another, alternative approach is the use of the estimates of the safety factors that do not depend on particular shape of the probability densities of the stress and strength. Such approaches have been advanced by various investigators, notably by Mischke (1970), Dao-Thien and Massoud (1974) and Ichikawa (1983). We will be mostly following Ichikawa’s (1983) and Reiser’s (1985) works in exposition of this subject.
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