To induce a nuclear reaction or change in the structure of a nucleus requires an energy of several keV or a few MeV, and chemical reactions (which involve a few eV) have no effect on the nucleus. The physics and chemistry of the outer atom can be considered with little reference to any nuclear properties other than its total mass and charge. We turn now to the problems of nuclear structure, and in this field, conversely, the effect of the electrons in the atom can be largely ignored.
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