Four-Frequency Converters and Amplifiers

  • L. Laurent
Part of the Philips Technical Library book series


In four-frequency converters and amplifiers, the four main frequencies f p , f e , f(+) and f(−) are used. Devices of this type are little used in practice, because of the difficulty in producing them satisfactorily. The only one which is of interest, and of which some practical examples have been mentioned in technical literature, is the sum-frequency converter [1]. The representation of four-frequency circuits by equations is much more complicated than for three-frequency circuits. It is for this reason that we have studied the two families of circuits independently, instead of considering the second as special cases derived from the first by suppression of f(+) or f(−).


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Luksch, Matthews and Verwys, ‘Design and operation of four-frequency parametric up-converters’, I.R.E. Trans, on Microwave Theory and Techniques, January 1961.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Anderson and Aukland, ‘A general catalogue of gain, bandwidth and noise temperature, expressions for four-frequency parametric devices’, I.E.E.E. Trans, on Electronic Devices, January 1963.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© N.V. Philips’ Gloeilampenfabrieken, Eindhoven 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Laurent

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations