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Conceptual Dualism

  • Raziel Abelson

Abstract

Recent studies in the conceptual foundations of psychology, beginning with Gilbert Ryle’s The Concept of Mind and Ludwig Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Investigations, have disclosed some interesting differences between the language of natural science and the language in which we describe human experiences and actions — differences that were vaguely sensed by Kant when he contrasted the realm of nature with the realm of freedom. The dominant tendency in experimental psychology is to disregard these differences and to assimilate psychological concepts to the language of natural science by means of operational definitions. In so doing, psychologists like Tolman, Hull, Skinner and Hebb reduce psychology to biology. (In fact, Hebb explicitly defines psychology as ‘a branch of biology’.1) Clinical, social and analytical psychologists, on the other hand, continue to do non-biological psychology, but with uneasy consciences. When they claim for their work the same kind of scientific warrant that is claimed by experimental psychologists, they tend to repudiate the very features of human psychology that distinguish it as psychological. To sum up the matter roughly and provisionally : to the degree to which a psychologist tries to be scientific in a way analogous to physicists and biologists, to that degree his procedure is self-defeating, for it will not produce positive psychological knowledge.

Keywords

Hull Bark Opium 

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Notes

  1. 1.
    ‘Psychology is fundamentally a biological science, not a social science D. O. Hebb, A Textbook of Psychology (Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1958) preface.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. E. M. Anscombe, Intention (Oxford: Blackwell, 1957) sect. 8Google Scholar
  3. P. F. Strawson, Individuals (London: Methuen, 1959) eh. niCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Sidney Shoemaker, Self Knowledge and Self Identity (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1963) pp. 214 fGoogle Scholar
  5. N. Malcolm, ‘Behaviorism as a Philosophy of Psychology’, in Behaviorism and Phenomenology, ed. T. W. Wann (University of Chicago Press, 1964).Google Scholar
  6. 3.
    R. S. Peters, The Concept of Motivation (New York: Humanities Press, 1958) ch. n;Google Scholar
  7. P. Winch, The Idea of a Social Science (New York: Humanities Press, 1958).Google Scholar
  8. 4.
    Gilbert Ryle, The Concept of Mind (New York: Barnes & Noble, 1949) pp. 130 f, on ‘achievement verbs’.Google Scholar
  9. 5.
    R. Chisholm, ‘Sentences about Believing’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 56 (1955–6); reprinted in Feigl, Scriven and Maxwell (eds), Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1958) vol. n, appendix.Google Scholar
  10. 6.
    E. Nagel, The Structure of Science (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1961) chs 2–3. Nagel recognises teleological and genetic types of explanation, but maintains that they are reducible to deductive and probabilistic types. Google Scholar
  11. See also C. G. Hempel and P. Oppenheim, ‘The Logic of Explanation’, Philosophy of Science (1948) for an equally influential statement of this view.Google Scholar
  12. 8.
    A. C. Maclntyre, The Unconscious (New York: Humanities Press, 1957) pp. 48 fGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Raziel Abelson 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raziel Abelson
    • 1
  1. 1.New York UniversityUSA

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