The Oxidation of Steel at High Temperatures and Its Effect on Die Surface Temperatures in Hot Forging
Experiments to determine the effect of the heating time in air on the surface oxidation of 080 M40 (En8) steel billets are described. Subsequent simple upsetting tests, both on a high speed Petro-Forge and a low speed hydraulic press*, show how the degree of surface oxidation affects die surface temperatures.
Theoretical analyses of the transient die surface temperatures during these forging operations give a reasonable correlation with experimental results obtained from the low speed forging tests. An elaboration of the theory to describe the high speed forging was less successful due to inadequate knowledge of the thermal properties of the oxides under the forging conditions and to the sensitiveness of the results to the values used,
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.O. KUBASCHEWSKI & B. HOPKINS, Oxidation of Metals and Alloys, Butterworth (1962).Google Scholar
- 2.Private communication National Physical Laboratory Teddington.Google Scholar
- 4.G. G. BROWN & C. C. FURNAS (1926), Thermal Properties of Ferric Oxide, Trans A.I.Ch. Eng. XVIII p. 306Google Scholar
- 5.J. LIS & P. O. KELLARD (1968), Measurement of the Thermal Conductivity of Thin Films of Magnetite, Brit. J. App. Phys, 1, 2, p. 1117Google Scholar
- 6.J. V. MELLOR (1934) A Comprehensive Treatise on Theoretical Chemistry, Vol. XIII Fe, Part 2.Google Scholar
- 7.O. KRESTA (1913) Sitzber Akad. Wiens 122Google Scholar
- 8.M. A. KELLOW, A. N. BRAMLEY & F. K. BANNISTER The Measurement of Temperatures in Forging Dies, Int. J. M.T.D.R. 9, p. 239.Google Scholar
- 9.H. S. CARSLAW & J. C. JAEGAR (1959) Conduction of Heat in Solids, OUPGoogle Scholar
- 11.S. A. Schaaf (1947) On the Superposition of Heat Source & Contact Resistance, Quart App. Math. 5, p. 107.Google Scholar