History and its Retrieval in Contemporary Northern Irish Poetry: Paulin, Montague and Others

  • Patricia Craig


Getting to grips with the past: this is a longstanding practice in Irish poetry. It is a matter of imaginative response, of compression and evocation. With Yeats and others, as Seamus Heaney has noted, contemplation of the past has been part of an attempt ‘to define and interpret the present’ — and, with early Yeats in particular, the antiquarian impulse which made such headway in the nineteenth century turned into something altogether livelier and richer, before subsiding completely. After Ferguson’s fustian (‘Clan Conal now lock close your shields, make fast your battle front; / The might, the might of Ulster comes, and Congal bears the brunt’) comes unregenerate Oisin flinging down the Christian artefact — ‘the chain of small stones’ — in the face of St Patrick’s admonitions. It is a heartening gesture, and devoid of archaic associations. Once he had mined the sagas for exaltation and romance, Yeats turned to an Ascendancy past to get a line on Irish uprightness and a spacious approach to living; all his appropriations were on the grandest possible scale, and presented in a tone not available to his successors, for whom the ‘filthy modern tide’ loomed inescapably. Historical allusion, equally inescapable, had to be toned down in the wake of Yeats, or take on an anachronistic colouring.


White Horse Ascendancy Past Prose Writer Early Poem Imaginative Response 
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  1. The poems discussed and quoted in this essay appear in Tom Paulin’s The Liberty Tree (London: Faber and Faber, 1983) and Fivemiletown (London: Faber and Faber, 1987);Google Scholar
  2. Louis MacNeice’s TTT Collected Poems, ed. E. R. Dodds (London: Faber and Faber, 1979);Google Scholar
  3. The Selected John Hewitt, ed. Alan Warner (Belfast: Blackstaff Press, 1981);Google Scholar
  4. John Montague’s The Rough Field (Dublin: Dolmen Press, 1972);Google Scholar
  5. Seamus Heaney’s Selected Poems 1965–1975 (London: Faber and Faber, 1980), Field Work (London: Faber and Faber, 1979) and Station Island (London: Faber and Faber, 1984);Google Scholar
  6. Derek Mahon’s Poems 1962–1978 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979);Google Scholar
  7. Michael Longley’s Poems 1963–1983 (Edinburgh: Salamander Press, 1985; Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1986);Google Scholar
  8. Paul Muldoon’s Selected Poems 1968–1983 (London: Faber and Faber, 1986) and Meeting the British (London: Faber and Faber, 1987);Google Scholar
  9. James Simmons’s From the Irish (Belfast: Blackstaff Press, 1985);Google Scholar
  10. Ciarán Carson’s The Irish for No (Dublin: Gallery Press; Winston-Salem: Wake Forest University Press, 1987);Google Scholar
  11. and Medbh McGuckian’s Venus and the Rain (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patricia Craig

There are no affiliations available

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