Pregnancy and Female Reproductive Disorders

  • Polly M. Galbraith

Abstract

Positive socioeconomic and cultural changes, as well as medical advances, have resulted in increased life expectancy and quality of life for women, particularly in their reproductive years. Gender differences in mortality, life expectancy and to a lesser extent for health expectancy is well known internationally. External preventable causes of death, such as smoking and injuries, were responsible for a significant portion of the gender gap in mortality previously. The life expectancy presently is reported to be 79 years in women and 74 years in men in the US with other developed countries’ life expectancy being quite similar. A larger death burden is observed in women for sex-specific causes of death. Women’s risk for many diseases increases at menopause, which occurs at a median age of 51.4 years. In industrialized countries, women spend 30% of their lifetime in the postmenopausal period. Menopause is associated with a number of significant physiologic and metabolic changes, in that rate of cardiovascular disease increase and bone density decreases.

Keywords

Obesity Hepatitis Estrogen Nicotine Estradiol 

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Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2006

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  • Polly M. Galbraith

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