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Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


By the 1st millennium BC the Diakhi (Taokhi) and the Qolha (Colchis) tribal groups had developed bronze casting. A two-state confederation emerged as early as the 6th century BC, with Colchis (Egrisi) in the west and Kartli (Iberia) in the east. The Greeks established Black Sea colonies from the 6th century BC, including Phasis (present-day Poti), Gyenos (Ochamchire) and Dioscuras (Sukhumi). Parnavaz I ruled a united Kartli (or Georgia) from his citadel of Armaztsikhe from c. 302–237 BC.


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Further Reading

  1. Areshidze, Irakly, Democracy and Autocracy in Eurasia: Georgia in Transition. 2007Google Scholar
  2. Coppieters, Bruno and Legvold, Robert, (eds.) Statehood and Security: Georgia after the Rose Revolution. 2005Google Scholar
  3. Gachechiladze, R., The New Georgia: Space, Society, Politics. 1995Google Scholar
  4. Jones, Stephen, Georgia: A Political History since Independence. 2012 Mikaberidze, Alexander, Historical Dictionary of Georgia. 2007Google Scholar
  5. Nodia, Ghia and Scholtbach, Alvaro Pinto, The Political Landscape of Georgia: Political Parties, Achievements, Challenges, and Prospects. 2007Google Scholar
  6. Pelkmans, Mathijs, Defending the Border: Identity, Religion, and Modernity in the Republic of Georgia. 2006Google Scholar
  7. Rayfield, Donald, Edge of Empires: A History of Georgia. 2012Google Scholar
  8. Suny, R. G., The Making of the Georgian Nation. 2nd ed. 1994Google Scholar
  9. Wheatley, Jonathan, Georgia from National Awakening to Rose Revolution: Delayed Transition in the Former Soviet Union. 2005Google Scholar
  10. National Statistical Office: National Statistics Service of Georgia, 30 Tsotne Dadiani Str., 0180 Tbilisi.Google Scholar

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