Advertisement

Food Security

  • Hope Johnson
  • Reece Walters

Abstract

The global food system is increasingly insecure. Challenges to long-term global food security are encapsulated by resource scarcity, environmental degradation, biodiversity loss, climate change, reductions of farm labour and a growing world population. These issues are caused and aggravated by the spread of corporatized and monopolized food systems, dietary change and urbanization. These factors have rapidly brought food insecurity under the umbrella of unconventional security threats (van Heukelom, 2011). For some, humanitarian crises associated with food insecurity, or what has been dubbed ‘the silent tsunami’, is a pending peril, notably for the world’s poorest and most vulnerable people. For others, the food production industry is an emerging market with unprecedented profits. Despite this problem of food scarcity, we are witnessing extraordinary ‘food wastage’, notably in North America and Europe, on a scale that would reportedly be capable of feeding the world’s hungry more than six times (Stuart, 2012).

Keywords

Food Security Food Insecurity Food System Fair Trade World Trade Organization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbott, K.W., Marchant, G.E. and Sylvester, D.J. (2010). A New Soft Law Approach to Nanotechnology Oversight: A Voluntary Product Certification Scheme. UCLA Journal of Environmental Law & Policy, 28(1), 123.Google Scholar
  2. Alvarado, I. and Charmel, K. (2002). The Rapid Rise of Supermarkets in Costa Rica: Impact on Horticultural Markets.. Development Policy Review, 20(4), 473–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asfaw, S., Mithöfer, D. and Waibel, H. (2010). Agrifood Supply Chain, Private-Sector Standards, and Farmers’ Health: Evidence from Kenya,. Agricultural Economics, 41(3–4), 251–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Auld, Graeme. (2010). Assessing Certification as Governance: Effects and Broader Consequences for Coffee. The Journal of Environment & Development, 19, 215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bacon, C. (2005). Confronting the Coffee Crisis: Can Fair Trade, Organic, and Specialty Coffees Reduce Small-Scale Farmer Vulnerability in Northern Nicaragua?. World Development, 33(3), 497–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bai, Z.G., Dent, D.L., Olsson, L. and Schaepman, M.E. (2008). Proxy Global Assessment of Land Degradation.. Soil Use and Management, 24(3), 223–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barrett, C.B. (2010) Measuring Food Insecurity. Science, 327(5967), 825–828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beachy, B. (2010). The Coming Food Crisis: Trading Away Security.. Kennedy School Review, 11, 105–117.Google Scholar
  9. Becchetti, L. (2012). Market Access, Organic Farming and Productivity: The Effects of Fair Trade Affiliation on Thai Farmer Producer Groups.. Australian Journal of Agricultural & Resource Economics, 56(1), 117–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Becchetti, L. and Costantino, M. (2006). The Effects of Fair Trade on Marginalised Producers: An Impact Analysis on Kenyan Farmers, Working Paper Series, London, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.Google Scholar
  11. Bentley, P. and Silberston, A. (2007). Anti-Dumping and Countervailing?: Limits Imposed by Economic and Legal Theory. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beuchelt, T.D. and Zeller, M. (2013). The Role of Cooperative Business Models for the Success of Smallholder Coffee Certification in Nicaragua: A Comparison of Conventional, Organic and Organic-Fairtrade Certified Cooperatives.. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 28(3), 195–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blitt, Robert C. (2012). Beyond Ruggie’s Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights: Charting an Embracive Approach to Corporate Human Rights Compliance. Texas International Law Journal, 48, 33.Google Scholar
  14. Burch, D., Dixon, J. and Lawrence, G. (2013). Introduction to Symposium on the Changing Role of Supermarkets in Global Supply Chains: From Seedling to Supermarket: Agri-food Supply Chains in Transition.. Agriculture and Human Values, 30(2), 215–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Burch, D. and Lawrence, G. (2009). Towards a Third Food Regime: Behind the Transformation.. Agriculture and Human Values, 26(4), 267–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bush, R. (2010). Food Riots: Poverty, Power and Protest.. Journal of Agrarian Change, 10(1), 119–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chen, J., Jing-zhang, C., Man-zhi, T. and Zi-tong, G. (2002). Soil Degradation: A Global Problem Endangering Sustainable Development.. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 12(2), 243–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chilton, M. and Rose, D. (2009). A Rights-Based Approach to Food Insecurity in the United States.. American Journal of Public Health, 99(7), 1203–1211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Clapp, J. (2009). The Global Food Crisis and International Agricultural Policy: Which Way Forward?. Global Governance, 15(2), 299–312.Google Scholar
  20. Clapp, J. and Fuchs, D.A. (2009). Corporate Power in Global Agrifood Governance. Cambridge: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Conroy, M.E. (2007). Branded!: How the ‘Certification Revolution’ Is Transforming Global Corporations, New Society Publishers.Google Scholar
  22. Cottier, Thomas, Pauwelyn, Joost and Burgi, Elisabeth (eds) (2005). Human Rights and International Trade. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Cribb, J. (2010). The Coming Famine: Risks and Solutions for Global Food Security. Agricultural Science, 22(1), 24.Google Scholar
  24. Croall, H. (2012). Food Crime: A Green Criminology Perspective, in Brisman, A. and South, N. (eds.) Routledge International Handbook of Green Criminology. London: Routledge. pp. 167–183.Google Scholar
  25. Daboub, A.J., Shane, H.M., Ortiz, D. and Blakemore, T.M. (2012). The Regulation of Genetically Modified Foods: A Corporate Ethical and Social Responsibility Challenge.. Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues, 15(2), 9–24.Google Scholar
  26. de Schutter, O. (2011a). Report Submitted by the Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, The Right to an Adequate Diet: The Agriculture-Food-Health Nexus. Paper presented at the 19th Session of the United Nations Human Rights Council, Geneva, Switzerland, United Nations.Google Scholar
  27. de Schutter, O. (2011b). The World Trade Organization and the Post-Global Food Crisis Agenda: Putting Food Security First in the International Trade System. Activity Report, United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, 1–20.Google Scholar
  28. Deaton, B.J. (2004). A Theoretical Framework for Examining the Role of Third-party Certifiers.. Food Control, 15(8), 615–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (2012). National Food Plan: Green Paper. Canberra: Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry.Google Scholar
  30. Deloitte, (2011). Leaving Home: Global Powers of Retailing. Accessed December 2, 2013, from http://www.rundlemall.com/bm.doc/deloitte—global-powers-of-retailing-2011.pdf.Google Scholar
  31. Endorsed by UN Human Rights Council and Proposed by UN Special Representative John Ruggie (2011). Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights: Implementing the United Nations ‘Protect, Respect and Remedy’ Framework. Human Rights Council 17th Session, Agenda item 3. Accessed April 10, 2013, from http://www.business-humanrights.org/SpecialRepPortal/Home/Protect-Respect-Remedy-Framework/GuidingPrinciples.Google Scholar
  32. Engdahl, F. W. (2004). Bio-Imperalism: Why the Biotech Bullies Must Be Stopped. Organic Consumers Association.Google Scholar
  33. Ericksen, P. (2008). Conceptualizing Food Systems for Global Environmental Change Research. Global Environmental Change, 18, 234. http://www.etcgroup.org/sites/www.etcgroup.org/files/publication/44/01/oligopoly2005_16dec.05.pdf.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. ETC Group (2011). Who Will Control the Green Economy? Accessed September 20, 2013, from http://www.etcgroup.org/content/who-will-control-green-economy-0.Google Scholar
  35. ETC Group (2013). Putting the Cartel before the Horse, Farm Seeds, Soil and Peasants. Accessed September 4, 2013, from http://www.etcgroup.org/content/new-report-putting-cartel-horse%E2%80%A6and-farm-seeds-soil-peasants.Google Scholar
  36. Fasterling, B. and Demuijnck, G. (2013). Human Rights in the Void? Due Diligence in the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights.. Journal of Business Ethics, 116(4), 799–814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fedoroff, Nina and Marie Brown, Nancy (2004). Mendel in the Kitchen: Scientist’s View of Genetically Modified Food, Joseph Henry Press. http://site.ebrary.com/lib/alltitles/docDetail.action?docID=10071326.Google Scholar
  38. Gibson, M. (2012). The Feeding of Nations?: Re-Defining Food Security for the 21st Century. Hoboken: CRC Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Goodman, M.K. (2004). Reading Fair Trade: Political Ecological Imaginary and the Moral Economy of Fair Trade Foods.. Political Geography, 23(7), 891–915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Guthman, J. (2007). The Polanyian Way? Voluntary Food Labels as Neoliberal Governance.. Antipode, 39(3), 456–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hartmann, M. (2011). Corporate Social Responsibility in the Food Sector.. European Review of Agricultural Economics, 38(3), 297–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hawkes, S. and Plahe, J.K. (2013). Worlds Apart: The WTO’s Agreement on Agriculture and the Right to Food in Developing Countries.. International Political Science Review, 34(1), 21–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ingram, J. (2011). A Food Systems Approach to Researching Food Security and Its Interactions with Global Environmental Change.. Food Security, 3(4), 417–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Iram, U. and Butt, M.S. (2004). Determinants of Household Food Security: An Empirical Analysis for Pakistan.. International Journal of Social Economics, 31(8), 753–766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jaffee, D. and Howard, P.H. (2010). Corporate Cooptation of Organic and Fair Trade Standards.. Agriculture and Human Values, 27(4), 387–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jahn, G., Schramm, M. and Spiller, A. (2005). The Reliability of Certification: Quality Labels as a Consumer Policy Tool.. Journal of Consumer Policy, 28(1), 53–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. James, H.S., Hendrickson, M. and Howard, P.H. (2012). Networks, Power and Dependency in the Agrifood Industry, SSRN Scholarly Paper, Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network. Accessed September 1, 2013, from http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2004496.Google Scholar
  48. Kersting, S. and Wollni, M. (2012). New Institutional Arrangements and Standard Adoption: Evidence From Small-Scale Fruit and Vegetable Farmers in Thailand.. Food Policy, 37(4), 452–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kneen, B. (1995). Invisible giant: Cargill and its Transnational Strategies, Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  50. Lang, Tim (2010). From ‘value-for-Money’ to ‘values-for-Money’? Ethical Food and Policy in Europe. Environment and Planning A 42, 1814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lawrence, G. and McMichael, P. (2012). The Question of Food Security. International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food 19, 135.Google Scholar
  52. London, C. (2012). Coffee, Certification, and the Incorrigibility of Capitalism.. Social Research, 79(4), 1045–1069,1085.Google Scholar
  53. Lynch, M. J. (1990). The Greening of Criminology: A Perspective on the 1990s. The Critical Criminologist 2, 1.Google Scholar
  54. MarketLine (2013). Global Food Retail. Accessed December 2, 2013, from http://www.reportlinker.com/ci02212/Food-Retailing.html.Google Scholar
  55. Marsden, T. (2013). From Post-Productionism to Reflexive Governance: Contested Transitions in Securing more Sustainable Food Futures.. Journal of Rural Studies, 29, 123–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Maye, D. and Kirwan, J. (2013). Food Security: A Fractured Consensus.. Journal of Rural Studies, 29, 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. McDermott, J., Aït-Aïssa, M., Morel, J. and Rapando, N. (2013). Agriculture and Household Nutrition Security — Development Practice and Research Needs.. Food Security, 5(5), 667–678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. McEwan, C. and Bek, D. (2009). The Political Economy of Alternative Trade: Social and Environmental Certification in the South African Wine Industry.. Journal of Rural Studies, 25(3), 255–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mechlem, K. (2004). Food Security and the Right to Food in the Discourse of the United Nations, SSRN Scholarly Paper, Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network. Accessed August 28, 2013, from http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=591452.Google Scholar
  60. Méndez, V. Ernesto et al. (2010). Effects of Fair Trade and Organic Certifications on Small-Scale Coffee Farmer Households in Central America and Mexico. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 25, 236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mooney, Patrick H. and Scott, A. Hunt. (2009). Food Security: The Elaboration of Contested Claims to a Consensus Frame. Rural Sociology, 74, 469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Moreno, L.A., Sarria, A. and Popkin, B.M. (2002). The Nutrition Transition in Spain: A European Mediterranean Country. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 56(10), 992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Murphy, S., Burch, D. and Clapp, J. (2012). Cereal Secrets: The World’s Largest Grain Traders and Global Agriculture. Oxfam Research Reports, Washington, DC: Oxfam International. Accessed August 30, 2013, from http://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/rr-cereal-secrets-grain-traders-agriculture-30082012-en.pdf.Google Scholar
  64. Nachtergaele, F.O.F. and Licona-Manzur, C. (2009). The Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA) Project: Reflections on Indicators for Land Degradation Assessment, in Lee, C. and Schaaf, T. (eds.) The Future of Drylands. Netherlands: Springer. pp. 327–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Nestle Global (2012). Nestlé in Society: Creating Shared Value and Meeting Our Commitments 2012. Accessed October 25, 2013, from http://www.nestle.com/csv/downloads.Google Scholar
  66. Nicholls, A. and Opal, C. (2005). Fair Trade: Market-Driven Ethical Consumption Fair Trade: Market-Driven Ethical Consumption. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  67. O’Brien, T. (2012). Food Riots as Representations of Insecurity: Examining the Relationship Between Contentious Politics and Human Security.. Conflict, Security & Development, 12(1), 31–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. OECD (2013). Global Food Security?: Challenges for the Food and Agricultural System. Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  69. Patel, R. (2009). Food Sovereignty. Journal of Peasant Studies 36, 663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (2011). Seven Billion and Growing: The Role of Population Policy in Achieving Sustainability. Technical Paper, New York.Google Scholar
  71. Putnam, H.R. and Coleman, J. ‘Certification’. Green Business: An A-to-Z Guide Green business: An A-to-Z guide (Sage Publications, Inc.). http://knowledge.sagepub.com/view/greenbusiness/n23.xml.
  72. Raghib, Q. (2013) ‘Pitfalls and Perils of Politicised Food Insecurity’, News Daily. Accessed May 29, 2014, from http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2013%5C06%5C28%5Cstory_28-6-2013_pg3_4Google Scholar
  73. Rees, A. (2006). GM Potatoes — Facts and Fictions. The Ecologist 36, 14.Google Scholar
  74. Riddle, J. (2007) FAO forecasts continued high cereal prices, Food and Agriculture Organisation, Newsroom. http://www.fao.org/NEWSROOM/EN/news/2007/1000697/index.html.Google Scholar
  75. Rivera-Ferre, M. (2012). Framing of Agri-food Research Affects the Analysis of Food Security: The Critical Role of the Social Sciences.. International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food, 19(2), 162–175.Google Scholar
  76. Rome Declaration on World Food Security (World Food Summit, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) 13 November 1996, Italy, Rome.Google Scholar
  77. Ronchi, L. (2002). The Impact of Fair Trade on Producers and their Organizations: A Case Study with Coocafé in Costa Rica, Policy Research Unit: University of Sussex, Sussex. Accessed October 24, 2013, from http://my.ewb.ca/site_media/static/attachments/threadedcomments_threadedcomment/42867/Impact%20of%20FT%20on%20Producers%20and%20their%20Organizations.pdf.Google Scholar
  78. Ruben, R. and Fort, R. (2012). The Impact of Fair Trade Certification for Coffee Farmers in Peru.. World Development, 40(3), 570–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Senauer, B. (2008). Food Market Effects of a Global Resource Shift Toward Bioenergy American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 90, 1226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sheehy, B. (2012). Understanding CSR: An Empirical Study of Private Regulation. Monash University Law Review, 38(2), 103.Google Scholar
  81. Shepherd, B. (2012). Thinking Critically About Food Security.. Security Dialogue, 43(3), 195–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Simons, P. (2012). International Law’s Invisible Hand and the Future of Corporate Accountability for Violations of Human Rights.. Journal of Human Rights and the Environment, 3(1), 5–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Smith, Alastair, ‘Fair Trade’ 266. http://knowledge.sagepub.com.ezp01.library.qut.edu.au/view/greenbusiness/n74.xml
  84. South, N. (2010). The Ecocidal Tendencies of Late Modernity: Transnational Crime, Social Exclusion, Victims and Rights, in White, R. (ed.), Global Environmental Harm: Criminological Perspectives. Willan Publishing, 228.Google Scholar
  85. South, N. and Beirne, P. (2006). Green Criminology. Ashgate Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar
  86. South, N., Brisman, A. and Beirne, P. (2013) Routledge International Handbook of Green Criminology, in South, N. and Brisman, A. (eds.), Routledge International Handbook of Green Criminology. Taylor and Francis, 91.Google Scholar
  87. Steinbrecher, R. (2003). Hungry Corporations: Transnational Biotech Companies Colonise the Food Chain. Zed Books.Google Scholar
  88. Steinbrecher, R. (2003). Hungry Corporations: Transnational Biotech Companies Colonise the Food Chain. Zed Books.Google Scholar
  89. Stuart, T. (2009). Waste: Uncovering the Global Food Scandal. W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  90. Tanner, B. (2000). Independent Assessment by Third-Party Certification Bodies.. Food Control, 11(5), pp. 415–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tombs, S and D, Whyte (eds) (2003). Unmasking the Crimes of the Powerful. Peter Lang Publishing Inc.Google Scholar
  92. Tomlinson, I. (2013). Doubling Food Production to Feed the 9 billion: A Critical Perspective on a Key Discourse of Food Security in the UK.. Journal of Rural Studies, 29, 81–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. ‘Trade Reforms and Food Security: Conceptualizing the Linkages’ (Commodity Policy and Projections Service, Economic and Social Development Department of the Food and Agriculture Organisation, 2003) 313. http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4671e/y4671e06.htm#fnB27
  94. Trienekens, J. and Zuurbier, P. (2008). Quality and Safety Standards in the Food Industry, Developments and Challenges.. International Journal of Production Economics, 113(1), 107–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. United Nations (2010). Global Biodiversity Outlook 3,Convention of Biological Diversity. Accessed May 29, 2014, from http://www.cbd.int/doc/publications/gbo/gbo3-final-en.pdf%20Accessed%2029%20May%202014” http://www.cbd.int/doc/publications/gbo/gbo3-final-en.pdfGoogle Scholar
  96. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (1975). Report of the World Food Conference. Italy, Rome November 5–16, 1974.Google Scholar
  97. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (2006a). Food Security. Policy Brief, Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  98. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (2006b). Eradicating World Hunger-Taking Stock Ten Years After the World Food Summit, The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2006. Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  99. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (2009). How to Feed the World in 2050: Paper Prepared for the High Level Expert Forum. Rome, October 12–19, 2009. Accessed September 20, 2013, from http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/wsfs/docs/expert_paper/How_to_Feed_the_World_in_2050.pdf.Google Scholar
  100. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization; The International Fund for Agricultural Development; World Food Programme (2012). Economic Growth is necessary but not Sufficient to Accelerate Reduction of Hunger and Malnutrition. The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2012, Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  101. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization; The International Fund for Agricultural Development; World Food Programme (2013). The Multiple Dimensions of Food Security, The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2013. Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  102. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Commodity Policy and Projections Service (2003). Trade Reforms and Food Security: Conceptualizing the Linkages, Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  103. Urdal, H. (2008). Demographic Aspects of Climate Change, Environmental Degradation and Armed Conflict. In New York. Accessed October 25, 2013, from http://www.researchgate.net/publication/228801794_Demographic_aspects_of_climate_change_environmental_degradation_and_armed_conflict/file/9fcfd50b32baa21d89.pdf.Google Scholar
  104. Valkila, J. and Nygren, A. (2010). Impacts of Fair Trade Certification on Coffee Farmers, Cooperatives, and Laborers in Nicaragua.. Agriculture and Human Values, 27(3), 321–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. van der Meulen, B. (2011). Private Food Law: Governing Food Chains Through Contract Law, Self-regulation, Private Standards, Audits and Certification Schemes. Wageningen: Academic Pub.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. van Heukelom, T.S. (2011). A Human Approach to Food Security.. Journal of Human Security (pre-2012), 7(1), 6–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Van Ommen, B., El-Sohemy, A., Hesketh, J., Kaput, J., Fenech, M., Evelo, C.T., McArdle, H.J., Bouwman, J., Lietz, G., Mathers, J.C., Fairweather-Tait, S., van Kranen, H., Elliott, R., Wopereis, S., Ferguson, L.R., Meplan, C., Perozzi, G., Allen, L. and Rivero, D. (2010). The Micronutrient Genomics Project: A Community-Driven Knowledge Base for Micronutrient Research.. Genes & Nutrition, 5(4), 285–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Walters, R. (2006). Crime, Bio-Agriculture and the Exploitation of Hunger. British Journal of Criminology 46, 26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Walters, R. (2009). Crime, Bio-Agriculture and the Exploitation of Hunger, in Rob White (ed.), Environmental Crime: A Reader. London: Willan Publishing, p. 445.Google Scholar
  110. Walters, R. (2010). Eco Crime, in Muncie, J., Talbot, D. and Walters, R. (eds.) Crime. Local and Global. Willan: Collompton. pp. 173–208.Google Scholar
  111. Walters, R. (2012). Eco Crime and Genetically Modified Food. London: Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  112. Walters, R., SolomonWesterhuis, D. and Wyatt, T. (eds) (2013). Emerging Issues in Green Criminology. Exploring Power, Justice and Harm. London: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  113. Winston, M. (2002). Travels in the Genetically Modified Zone. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  114. World Trade Organization (1994). Agreement on Agriculture (Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Annex 1A, The Legal texts: The results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations 33 (1999), 1867 U.N.T.S. 410.) Marrakesh, Morroco.Google Scholar
  115. Zhang, Z., Lohr, L., Escalante, C. and Wetzstein, M. (2010). Food Versus Fuel: What Do Prices Tell Us?. Energy Policy, 38(1), 445–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Zurek, Monika, A Short Review of Global Scenarios for Food Systems Analysis (GECAFS Working Paper 1, Global Environmental Change and Food Systems, March 2006) 16. http://www.gecafs.org/publications/Publications/GECAFS_Working_Paper_1_Zurek_March_2006.pdf

Copyright information

© Hope Johnson and Reece Walters 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hope Johnson
  • Reece Walters

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations