Disinformation and Antisemitism

Holocaust Denial in the Baltic States, 1945–1999
  • Dov Levin


Although this article presumes to focus on all three of the important phenomena expressed in its title, in the post-Holocaust reality they often commingle and cannot always be differentiated properly.1 In the main, this is said about the problem of distinguishing between general denial of the Holocaust2 and partial denial, which includes components of disinformation and distortion. All of them frequently interrelate with the new forms of antisemitism. Be this as it may, this article will attempt to present several facts that represent our knowledge of these phenomena in respect to the Holocaust in the three Baltic countries, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.


Mass Grave Baltic State Baltic Country Holocaust Denial Soviet Citizen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    See Dov Levin, ‘On the Relations between the Baltic Peoples and Their Jewish Neighbours Before, During and After World War II’, in Remembering for the Future, Theme I — Jews and Christians During and After the Holocaust (Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1988), pp.171–181.Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    For further details, see Dov Levin, Baltic Jews under the Soviets 1940–1946 (Jerusalem: The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1994).Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    Dennis B. Klein (ed.), Hidden History of the Kovno Ghetto (Washington, D.C.: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1997), p.242.Google Scholar
  4. 6.
    This term and others like it (‘innocent Soviet citizens’ or ‘peaceful Soviet citizens’) were also regularly used during the postwar era of Soviet rule in inscriptions on monument plaques. For facsimile reproductions of these inscriptions, see Y. Levinson, The Book of Sorrow (Vilnius: Vaga, 1997), p.21.Google Scholar
  5. 14.
    B. Baranauskas and F. Rozauskas (eds.), Masines Zudynes Lietuvoje (1941–1944) (Vilnius: Mintis, vol.1, 1965; vol.11, 1973).Google Scholar
  6. 15.
    A. Avotins, J. Dzirkalis and V. Petersons. F. Rozauskas (eds.), Daugavas Vanagi — Who Are They? (Riga, 1963).Google Scholar
  7. 16.
    E. Martinson, Slugi Svastiki [The servants of the swastika] (Tallinn: Eesti Raamat, 1962).Google Scholar
  8. 17.
    Vytautas Tininis, Sovietine Lietuva ir Jos veikejai (Vilnius: Enciklopedija, 1994), p. 137.Google Scholar
  9. 19.
    K. Telyatnikov, ‘Mingle with the People’, Soviet Life 8, no. 179 (August 1971): 63.Google Scholar
  10. See also Genrikas Zimanas, Illusions and Reality (Vilnius: Mintis, 1983), pp.86–89.Google Scholar
  11. 20.
    One of the books that revealed murderers of Jews in Latvia is J. Silabriedis and H. Arklans, Political Refugees — Unmasked (Riga, 1965).Google Scholar
  12. 22.
    ‘In their zeal to undo the convictions handed down by the Soviet courts, Lithuanian officials granted rehabilitations even to individuals who had been convicted of participation in murder.’ Efraim Zuroff, ‘Whitewashing the Holocaust: Lithuanian and the Rehabilitation of History’, Tikkun 7, no.1 (January–February 1992): 44.Google Scholar
  13. 28.
    Eliezer Zilber, ‘The Genocide of the Lithuanian Jews’, Lithuania — Crime and Punishment 3 (August 1993): 14. Cf. E. Jacovskis, ‘Kodel rugscjo 23-oji?’ [Why 23 September?], Tiesa, 10 June 1993.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dov Levin

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations