Trends in Armed Forces and Demobilization in Sub-Saharan Africa
The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the trends in the armed forces, demobilizations and military expenditures in Sub-Saharan Africa, since the early 1980s. For the aggregate data on the armed forces presented here the same database is used as compiled for BICC’s annual Conversion Survey (BICC, 1998). The initial source for 1981–93 data on armed forces personnel was the US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA). These figures have subsequently been compared with data from a variety of other sources, including the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) and additional publications relevant to the topic. When support existed for a non-ACDA estimate, this was used. Data for 1994–6 stem from a variety of sources, including IISS, country studies and press clippings. Regular armed forces refer to government forces, excluding reservists, whether stationed within the country itself or abroad. Paramilitary troops, civilians employed by the armed forces are not included; also opposition forces are not included. The estimates are for the average size of the armed forces in the relevant year, but in many cases it is difficult to assess whether or not data conform to these definitions.
KeywordsArmed Force Military Expenditure African National Congress Peace Agreement Rebel Group
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