Nationalisms Categorized and Compared
Irish, Basque and Carlist nationalisms exhibited characteristics typical of nationalism since its inception during the French Revolution: a collapsing of cultural and political identities; a populist vision of society in which all individuals are seen as political actors; and an equality between members of the nation. These elements are interrelated in development and application, and initially had manifested themselves in revolutionary liberal nationalism. However, they were flexible enough to allow for later innovation. Thus the nationalist equation of politics and culture ideologically could appear by the early twentieth century in Irish unitary and Carlist decentralized state nationalisms, as well as the confederalism of Aranist Basque nationalism. Nationalist populism encouraged the attempted enlistment of workers in Bilbao by Basque nationalists and Sevilla and Barcelona by Carlists, with the populist precept allowing Irish socialists to ally themselves with the nationalist cause. At the same time the non-prescriptive and assumed equality of nationalism served to deny the need for class-based revolution which complemented Aranist nationalist doctrine and the corporatist social thought of Carlists, and meant Irish nationalists could view the solution of socio-economic issues through the political attainment of self-determination rather than a primary emphasis on these issues themselves.
KeywordsDissident State Religious Identity Liberal State Cultural Nation Popular Support
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