The Kenyan General Elections of 1997: Implementing a New Model for International Election Observation in Africa

  • M. Rutten


In 1992, Kenya held the first multi-party elections since the de facto single-party elections of 1969. Church leaders had started campaigning for the return of the multi-party system in the beginning of 1990. Politicians, NGOs and the Kenyan public at large followed their example. Even more important, by November 1991 the international donor community also openly pressed for political as well as economic reforms and threatened to withhold aid. The following month President Daniel arap Moi announced the withdrawal of section 2(A) of the Constitution, making Kenya a de jure multi-party state again. New political parties were launched. finally, on 29 December 1992 Kenya followed the footsteps of Zambia, which had, among the English-speaking African countries, heralded the transition from single to multi-party politics in October 1991 (see Andreassen et al. 1992).


Political Party Election Rule Campaign Period Observer Group Electoral Commission 
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© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2000

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  • M. Rutten

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