The Origins and Development of U.S. Public Diplomacy
Having attempted to define public diplomacy and place it within the context of the overall foreign affairs process, we turn to the practice of public diplomacy by the U.S. government, assessing first the impact of history, personalities, and legislation on current policies and practices.
KeywordsEurope Defend Malone
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- 1.Lois W. Roth, “Public Diplomacy: 1952–1977,” The Fletcher Forum, Vol. 8, No. 2 (Summer 1984), p. 353.Google Scholar
- 2.A perceptive 1988 study is Gifford Malone’s Political Advocacy and Cultural Communication, op. cit. Another discussion of the subject is contained in three articles in the April 1988 Foreign Service Journal: Hans N. Tuch, “The Endless Debate”; Gifford Malone, “Equal But Separate”; and Robert Chatten, “Wrong Division,” pp. 30–43. See also David I. Hitchcock, Jr., U.S. Public Diplomacy, Significant Issues Series (Washington, D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1988). An excellent academic introduction to, and analysis of, public diplomacy in the context of foreign affairs is W. Phillips Davison, International Political Communication (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1965).Google Scholar
- 6.For a detailed account of the U.S.-German cultural exchange program from its postwar beginning in 1945 to 1954, see Henry J. Kellermann, Cultural Relations as an Instrument of U.S. Foreign Policy: The Educational Exchange Program between the United States and Germany 1945–1954 (Washington, D.C.: Department of State Publication 8931, International Information and Cultural Series 114, March 1978), 3–252.Google Scholar
- 7.Ibid., Appendix, 261, 264, 276.Google Scholar
- 8.Ibid., 79.Google Scholar
- 24.Thomas Sorensen is the author of The Word War: The Story of American Propaganda (New York: Harper & Row, 1968).Google Scholar
- 25.A. M. Sperber, Murrow: His Life and Times (New York: Freundlich Books, 1986), 628–31.Google Scholar
- 26.Ibid., 660.Google Scholar