• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


The Indonesian archipelago was populated from the north from around 3000 BC. Indian scholars described the Dvipantera civilization of Java and Sumatra as early as 200 BC and Indian-influenced Hindu kingdoms began to appear in the west of the archipelago from the 1st century AD. Small maritime trading settlements evolved into Srivijaya, a Buddhist Malay kingdom centred on southeast Sumatra. The Srivijaya empire controlled trade between India and China through the Melaka strait and by the late 7th century it had expanded to encompass much of Sumatra, the Malay peninsula and western Java. Other Indianized kingdoms developed in central Java, including Mataram (8th-10th centuries) and Mahayana (9th century).


Natural Rubber Proven Reserve Economist Intelligence Unit Indonesian Archipelago Main Export 
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Further Reading

  1. Central Bureau of Statistics. Statistical Yearbook of Indonesia.—Monthly Statistical Bulletin: Economic Indicator.Google Scholar
  2. Cribb, R., Historical Dictionary of Indonesia. 1993.Google Scholar
  3. Cribb, R. and Brown, C., Modern Indonesia: a History since 1945. 1995Google Scholar
  4. Day, Tony, (ed.) Identifying with Freedom: Indonesia after Suharto. 2007Google Scholar
  5. Elson, R. E., Suharto; a Political Biography. 2001Google Scholar
  6. Forrester, Geoff, (ed.) Post-Soeharto Indonesia: Renewal or Chaos? 1999Google Scholar
  7. Forrester, Geoff and May, R. J. (eds.) The Fall of Soeharto. 1999Google Scholar
  8. Friend, Theodore, Indonesian Destinies. 2003Google Scholar
  9. Glassburner, Bruce, (ed.) The Economy of Indonesia: Selected Readings. 2007Google Scholar
  10. Holt, Claire, (ed.) Culture and Politics in Indonesia. 2007Google Scholar
  11. Kingsbury, Damien, The Politics of Indonesia. 2nd ed. 2002Google Scholar
  12. Ricklefs, M. C., A History of Modern Indonesia since c. 1200. 4th ed. 2008Google Scholar
  13. Schwarz, Adam, A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia’s Search for Stability. Revised ed. 1999Google Scholar
  14. Schwarz, Adam and Paris, Jonathan, (eds.) The Politics of Post-Suharto Indonesia. 1999Google Scholar
  15. Vatikiotis, M. R. J., Indonesian Politics under Suharto: Order, Development and Pressure for Change. 2nd ed. 1994Google Scholar
  16. National Statistical Office: Central Bureau of Statistics, Jl. Dr. Sutomo 6–8, Jakarta, 10710.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

There are no affiliations available

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