• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Albania was originally part of Illyria which stretched along the eastern coastal region of the Adriatic. By 168 BC the Romans, having conquered Illyria, administered it as a province (Illyricum) of their empire. From AD 395 Illyria became part of the eastern Byzantine empire, the decline of which over the following centuries encouraged waves of Slavic invasions across the region. During the middle ages the name Albania began to be increasingly applied to the modern day region, possibly deriving from Albanoi, the name of an Illyrian tribe. Ottoman intrusion began in the 14th century and, despite years of resistance under the leadership of national hero Gjergj Kastrioti, Turkish suzerainty was imposed from 1478. During the 15th and 16th centuries, many Albanians fled to southern Italy to escape Ottoman rule and conversion to Islam. After the Russo-Turkish war of 1877–78 there were demands for independence from Turkey. With the defeat of Turkey in the Balkan war of 1912, Albanian nationalists proclaimed independence and set up a provisional government.


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Further Reading

  1. Fischer, Bernd, Albania at War 1939–45. C. Hurst, London, 1999Google Scholar
  2. Hutchings, R., Historical Dictionary of Albania. Lanham (MD), 1997Google Scholar
  3. Sjoberg, O., Rural Change and Development in Albania. Boulder (CO), 1992Google Scholar
  4. Vickers, M., The Albanians: a Modern History. London, 1997Google Scholar
  5. Vickers, M. and Pettifer, J., Albania: from Anarchy to a Balkan Identity. Farnborough, 1997Google Scholar
  6. Winnifrith, T. (ed.) Perspectives on Albania. London, 1992Google Scholar
  7. National Statistical Office: Albanian Institute of Statistics, Rr. ‘Lek Dukagjini’, Nr 5, Tirana. Director General: Gerta Picari.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

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