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The Philippines’ Relations with China

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Abstract

Among the ASEAN countries the Philippines is geographically the closest to China, with the two countries being separated only by a stretch of 600 miles of the South China Sea. ‘So physically close are the Philippines and China that ancient stories tell of land bridges connecting the Philippines and China’.1 Historically, contacts between the two countries can be traced back to ancient times. It was reported that the tributes from the Luzon island were sent to Chinese Imperial Court as early as 3000 years ago, although significant contacts started much later.

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Notes and References

  1. A remark by Manuel Collantes, the Philippines’ Undersecretary of Foreign Affairs, ‘President Marcos’ Visit to the People’s Republic of China: Its Significance’, Fookein Times Philippines Yearbook 1975, (Manila, 1976).

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  2. Chou Ju-Kua, A Sung superintendent of Customs in Chuan Zhou Fu and a noted historian wrote in his Chu-fan-zhi (Records of Foreign Lands) a vivid account of the barter trade between the Chinese merchants and the ‘natives’. Liu Ti Chen, ‘An Approach to the Study of Early Sino-Philippines Relations’ in Alfonso Felix, Jr, (ed.) The Chinese in the Philippines, 1570–1770, 2 vols (Manila: Solidaridad Publishing House, 1966) vol. I, p. 266. Also, in a recent work edited by Zhong-shan University’s Institute of Southeast Asian Historical Studies, Compendium of Chinese Materials Concerning the Philippines (Beijing, 1980).

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  3. See Antonio Tan, The Chinese in the Philippines, 1898–1935: A Study of Their National Awakening (Quezon City, Philippines: Garcia Publishing Co., 1972).

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  4. See Ho Ping-Yin, The Foreign Trade of China (Shanghai: Commercial Press Ltd, 1935) ch. XVI.

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  5. Cornelio Balmaceda, ‘The Changing Pattern of Philippines Foreign Trade’, Far Eastern Economic Review (6 March 1958).

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  6. Garel A Grunder and William E Livezey, The Philippines and the United States (Norman, University of Okhlahoma Press, 1951) p. 71 and p. 281.

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  7. Also, see William J. Pomeroy, American Neo-Colonialism: Its Emergence in the Philippines and Asia (New York: International Publishers, 1970).

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  8. Man Mohini Kaul, The Philippines and Southeast Asia (New Delhi: Radiant Publisher, 1978) p. 48. In January 1950, Quirino also told the US press in San Francisco that the Philippines’ recognition of China was ‘inevitable’.

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  9. For a good discussion of the Philippines’ relations with Nationalist China in Taiwan, see Hsiao Shi-Ching, Chinese-Philippine Diplomatic Relations, 1946–1975 (Quezon City: Bookman Printing House, 1975).

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  10. See Evelyn Colbert, Southeast Asia in International Politics 1941–1956 (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1977).

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  11. Michael Leifer, The Foreign Relations of the New States, Studies in Contemporary Southeast Asia (Victoria, Australia: Longman, 1974) p. 83.

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  12. J. L. Vellut, The Asian Policy of the Philippines, 1954–1961 (Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1965) p. 26.

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  13. Later, when the Philippine Trade Mission visited China in 1973, Zhou Enlai asked the leader Dr Wigberto Clavecilla, ‘How is my friend Romulo, my Bandung friend since 1955?’, Wen Hui Pao (Hong Kong, 1 June 1973) p. 1.

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  14. Carlos Romulo, ‘Point of Departure’, The Ambassador, vol. 11, no. 2 (November 1971).

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  15. See Santiago Medrana and Horacio Buno, People’s Republic of Chipa-Philippine Relations and the Local Chinese Community (Manila: Advocate Book Supply Co., 1976).

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  16. See Chun-hsi Wu, ‘Overseas Chinese’ in Yuan-li Wu (ed.) China: A Handbook (New York: Praeger, 1972) p. 416.

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  17. Quite a huge volume of literature on the overseas Chinese in the Philippines is available. See, e.g., Antonio S. Tan, and Victor Purcell, The Chinese in Southeast Asia (Oxford Univ. Press: 1965) Part VIII.

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  18. Senator Rodolfo T. Ganzon, privileged speech before the Philippine Senate, on 19 March 1965. Quoted in James Ronald Blaker, ‘The Chinese in the Philippines: A Study of Power and Change’, Ph.D dissertation, (Ohio State University, 1979) p. 2.

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  19. For example, a wealthy Chinese merchant, Co Pak, was charged with financing the Huk elements. See Mel Andrew B. Molnar, et al., Undergrounds in Insurgent, Revolutionary and Resistance Warfare (Washington, DC: American University Press, 1963);

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  20. also, Eufronio Alip, Ten Centuries of Philippine-Chinese Relations (Manila: Alip & Sons, 1959).

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  21. Benito Lim, ‘The Silent Minority’, in the special ethnicity issue on the Overseas Chinese by the Philippine Sociological Review vol. 24, nos. 1–4 (January-October 1976) p. 17.

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  22. Frank Golay, et al, Underdevelopment and Economic Nationalism in Southeast Asia (New York: Cornell University Press, 1969) p. 50.

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© 1984 John Wong

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Wong, J. (1984). The Philippines’ Relations with China. In: The Political Economy of China’s Changing Relations with Southeast Asia. Palgrave, London. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-27929-6_5

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