Advertisement

Pillars of Empire: Africa

  • D. George Boyce
Chapter

Abstract

When in 1953 Winston Churchill, ruminating on his government’s decision to withdraw British troops from the Suez Canal Zone, told his Cabinet that ‘we are not animated by fear or weakness, but by the need of making a better deployment of our forces, and … in my case we are not going to be in any hurry’,1 he expressed what might be regarded as the aspirations of British colonial policy in the post-war era. He also articulated a more general assumption of British policy-makers, that the management of change was well within their capability. Thus the precipitate withdrawal from India in 1947 could be set in the balance by the notion that India had been led, slowly and gradually, towards self-government, though privately the Labour Cabinet on 10 December 1946 admitted that to make a precipitate withdrawal and ‘leave India in chaos’ might be regarded as ‘an inglorious end to our long association with India’: ‘world opinion would regard it as a policy of “scuttle” unworthy of a great power’.2

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    D. Goldsworthy, ‘Keeping Change within Bounds: Aspects of Colonial Policy during the Churchill and Eden Governments, 1951–1957’, JICH, 18: 1 (1996), p. 102.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ronald Hyam (ed.), BDEE, series A, vol. 2: Labour Government and the End of Empire, 1945–1951, part I: Higher Policy and Administration (London: HMSO, 1992), p. 32.Google Scholar
  3. 9.
    Kwame Nkrumah, Towards Colonial Freedom: Africa in the Struggle Against World Imperialism (London: Heinemann, 1962), p. 39.Google Scholar
  4. 10.
    Thomas Hodgkin, Nationalism in Colonial Africa (London: Muller, 1956), p. 179.Google Scholar
  5. 11.
    Ali A. Mazrui, Africa’s International Relations: The Diplomacy of Dependency and Change (Boulder, Col.: Westview Press, 1984), p. 28.Google Scholar
  6. 12.
    For which see the two articles by T. O. Ranger, ‘Connexions between “Primary Resistance” Movements and Modern Mass Nationalism in East and Central Africa’,part 1,Journal of African History, IX: 3 (1968), pp. 437–53; part II, op. cit., IX: 4 (1968), pp. 631–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 13.
    G. E. Metcalfe, Great Britain and Ghana: Documents of Ghanaian History, 1809–1957 (London, 1964), pp. 688–9.Google Scholar
  8. 14.
    John Iliffe, A Modern History of Tanganyika (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979), pp. 263–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 15.
    Thomas Hodgkin, Nationalism in Colonial Africa, pp. 131, 140–2; Robert I. Rotberg, ‘The Rise of African Nationalism’, World Politics, XV (October 1962 July 1963), pp. 75–90, at pp. 79–82;Google Scholar
  10. A. J. Hughes, East Africa: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda (London: Penguin, 1969 edn), pp. 100–1.Google Scholar
  11. 16.
    John Lonsdale, ‘The Emergence of African Nations: A Historiographical Analysis’, African Affairs, 67 (1968), pp. 11–28, at pp. 16–17.Google Scholar
  12. 18.
    John D. Hargreaves, ‘Towards the Transfer of Power in British West Africa’, in Prosser Gifford and W. R. Louis (eds), The Transfer of Power in Africa: Decolonisation, 1940–1960 (London, 1982), p. 138.Google Scholar
  13. 20.
    Muriel Chamberlain, Decolonisation: The Fall of the European Empires (Oxford: Blackwell, 1985), p. 36.Google Scholar
  14. 21.
    W. P. Kirkham, Unscrambling an Empire (London: Chatto & Windus, 1960), pp. 32–3.Google Scholar
  15. 22.
    D. Birmingham, The Decolonisation of Africa (London: University College of London Press, 1995), pp. 46–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 24.
    D. George Boyce (ed.), The Crisis of British Power; The Imperial and Naval Papers of the Second Earl of Selborne, 1895–1910 (London: The Historians’ Press, 1990), p. 222.Google Scholar
  17. 25.
    For an admirably clear discussion of this phenomenon see Donal Lowry, ‘Shame upon “Little England” while “Greater England” stands! Southern Rhodesia and the Imperial Idea’, in Alex C. May (ed.), The Round Table and British Foreign Policy (London, 1998), pp. 305–41.Google Scholar
  18. 26.
    Alan Megahey, Humphrey Gibbs Beleaguered Governor: Southern Rhodesia, 1929–1969 (London: Macmillan, 1998), pp. 21–2.Google Scholar
  19. 28.
    J. D. Fage, A History of Africa (London: Hutchinson, 1978), pp. 450–1.Google Scholar
  20. 34.
    W. K. Hancock, Survey of British Commonwealth Affairs, vol. 1: Problems of Nationality (London: Oxford University Press, 1937), p. 214.Google Scholar
  21. 36.
    Zoe Marsh and G. W. Kingsnorth, An Introduction to the History of East Africa (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1963), pp. 182–3.Google Scholar
  22. 42.
    Frank Furedi, Colonial Wars and the Politics of Third World Nationalism (London: I. B. Taurus, 1994), p. 163.Google Scholar
  23. 49.
    D. Goldsworthy, ‘Keeping Change within Bounds’, JICH, 18: 1 (1996), p. 84.Google Scholar
  24. 50.
    George Bennet and Alison Smith, ‘Kenya: from White Man’s Country to Kenyatta’s State, 1945–1963’, in D. A. Low and Alison Smith (eds), History of East Africa (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976), p. 136.Google Scholar
  25. 58.
    A. N. Porter and A. J. Stockwell (eds), British Imperial Policy and Decolonisation 1938–1964, vol. II: 1951–1964 (London, 1987), p. 61.Google Scholar
  26. 60.
    Porter and Stockwell (eds), British Imperial Policy, pp. 234–7; R. Ovendale, ‘Macmillan and the Wind of Change Speech in Africa, 1957–1960’, Historical Journal, 38: 2 (1995), pp.455–77; Cab. 21/3156, 3157.Google Scholar
  27. 71.
    John Turner, Harold Macmillan (London: Longman, 1994), p. 200.Google Scholar
  28. 94.
    Peter B. Harris, The Commonwealth (London, 1957), p. 107.Google Scholar
  29. 95.
    Austin Morgan, Harold Wilson (London: Pluto Press, 1992), p. 274.Google Scholar
  30. 106.
    D. Boucher and A. Vincent, A Radical Hegelian: The Political and Social Philosophy of Henry Jones (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1993), p. 151.Google Scholar
  31. 107.
    Christopher Hill and Christopher Lord, ‘The Foreign Policy of the Heath Government, 1970–74’, in Stuart Ball and Anthony Seldon (eds), The Heath Government, 1970–1974 (London: Longman, 1996), pp. 285–314, at p. 295.Google Scholar
  32. 108.
    R. Lewis, ‘From Zimbabwe-Rhodesia to Zimbabwe’, Round Table, 70 (1980), pp. 6–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 109.
    John Darwin, Britain and Decolonisation, pp.319–23; Sir Anthony Parsons, ‘Britain and the World’, in Dennis Kavanagh and Anthony Seldon (eds), The Thatcher Effect: A Decade of Change (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989), pp. 154–65, at pp. 156–7Google Scholar
  34. 114.
    John W. Harbeson and Donald Rothschild (eds), Africa in World Politics: Post Cold War Challenges (Boulder, Col.: Westview Press, 1995), p. 30.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. George Boyce 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. George Boyce

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations