Crime-Work Connections: Exploring the ‘Invisibility’ of Workplace Crime

  • Pamela Davies
  • Victor Jupp

Abstract

This chapter uses the organising theme of crime and work connections to develop an understanding of criminal activity and its location or siting. In particular, the chapter focuses upon one location or site of criminal activity: the workplace. Criminal acts can be seen to thrive at the junctures between the legitimate and illegitimate. What is more, they not only thrive at the boundaries between the legitimate and the illegitimate but also within and between the formal and informal settings. The workplace is seen as hiding several forms of criminal activity, often ‘dressing up’ activities as acceptable business practice. In other instances the activities in the workplace are approaching the illegitimate and are near illegal but are nevertheless visible practices, often excused or rationalised as ‘perks of the job’. The chapter also evaluates the usefulness of the concept of work for understanding some types of crimes committed for economic gain. The crime-and-work connection also points to the ways in which crimes may be understood by those seeking to explain the behaviour and activities. It is argued that explanations of such crimes might more fully appreciate the offender’s perspective.

Keywords

Income Posit Arena Boulder Omic 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson, R., Brown, J. and Campbell, E. A. (1993) Aspects of Sex Discrimination in Police Forces in England and Wales (London: Home Office Police Research Group).Google Scholar
  2. Austin, C. (1988) The Prevention of Robbery at Building Society Branches, Crime Prevention Unit Paper, No. 14 (London: Home Office).Google Scholar
  3. Bennett, T. and Wright, R. (1984) Burglars on Burglary: Prevention and the Offender (Aldershot: Gower).Google Scholar
  4. Block, A. (1991a) Masters of Paradise (New Brunswick: Transaction).Google Scholar
  5. Block, A. (1991b) The Business of Crime (Boulder, Co: Westview Press).Google Scholar
  6. Box, S. (1987) Unemployment, Crime and Deprivation (London, Sage).Google Scholar
  7. Box, S. (1992) Power, Crime and Mystification (London: Routledge).Google Scholar
  8. Braithwaite, J. (1986) Corporate Crime in the Pharmaceutical Industry (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul).Google Scholar
  9. Brown, J, (1997) ‘Equal Opportunities and the Police’, in P. Francis, P. Davies and V. Jupp (eds.) Policing Futures, the Police, Law Enforcement and the Twenty-First Century (Basingstoke: Macmillan Press).Google Scholar
  10. Cameron, M. O. (1964) The Booster and the Snitch (London: Free Press).Google Scholar
  11. Carter, P. and Jeffs, T. (1995) A Very Private Affair, Sexual Exploitation in Higher Education (Nottingham: Education Now).Google Scholar
  12. Chambliss, W. J. (1978) On the Take (Bloomington: Indiana University Press).Google Scholar
  13. Chaudhary, V. and Weller, M. (1993) ‘War Crimes’, The Guardian Education, 27 April.Google Scholar
  14. Cohen, A. K. (1977) ‘The Concept of Criminal Organisation’, British Journal of Criminology, 17(2), 97–111.Google Scholar
  15. Cohen, A. K. (1993) ‘Human Rights and Crimes of the State: the Culture of Denial’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 26(2).Google Scholar
  16. Commission for Racial Equality (1996) Race and Equal Opportunities in the Police Service: a Programme for Action (London: Commission for Racial Equality).Google Scholar
  17. Conklin, J. E. (1977) Illegal But Not Criminal (New Jersey: Spectrum).Google Scholar
  18. Croall, H. (1992) White Collar Crime (Buckingham: Open University Press).Google Scholar
  19. Davies, P. (1998) ‘Women, Crime and and Informal Economy: Female Offending and Crime for Gain’, paper presented to British Criminology Conference, 15–18 July 1997, Queen’s Univeristy of Belfast, and in M. Brogden (ed.), British Criminology Conferences: Selected Proceedings, Vol. 2.Google Scholar
  20. Ditton, J. (1979) Part-time Crime. An Ethnography of Fiddling and Pilferage (London: Macmillan).Google Scholar
  21. Dobash, R. P. and Dobash, R. E. (1979) Violence Against Wives: the Case Against Patriarchy (New York: Free Press).Google Scholar
  22. Dziech, B. W. and Weiner, L. (1990) The Lecherous Professor: Sexual Harrassment on Campus (Urbana: University of Illinois).Google Scholar
  23. Ekblom, P. (1987) Preventing Robberies at Sub-Post Offices: an Evaluation of a Security Initiative, Crime Prevention Unit Paper, No. 9.Google Scholar
  24. Field, S. (1990) Trends in Crime and Their Interpretation: a Study of Recorded Crime in Post-war England and Wales. Home Office Research Study, No. 119 (London: HMSO).Google Scholar
  25. Fineman, M. A. and Mykitiuk, R. (eds.) (1994) The Public Nature of Private Violence: the Discovery of Domestic Abuse (New York, London: Routledge).Google Scholar
  26. Foster, J. (1990) Villains, Crime and Community in the Inner City (London: Routledge).Google Scholar
  27. Gibbens, T. C. N. and Prince, J. (1962) Shoplifting (London: Institute for the Study and Treatment of Delinquency).Google Scholar
  28. Gill, M. (ed.) (1994) Crime at Work: Studies in Security and Crime Prevention (Leicester: Perpetuity Press).Google Scholar
  29. Gill, M. and Matthews, R. (1994) ‘Robbers on Robbery: Offenders’ Perspectives’, in M. Gill (ed.) (1994) Crime at Work: Studies in Security and Crime Prevention (Leicester: Perpetuity Press).Google Scholar
  30. Harding, P. and Jenkins, R. (1989) The Myth of the Hidden Economy (Milton Keynes: Open University Press).Google Scholar
  31. Heidensohn, F. (1996) (2nd edn) Women and Crime (London: Macmillan).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Henry, S. (1981) Can I Have it in Cash? A Study of Informal Institutions and Unorthodox Ways of Doing Things (London: Astragal Books).Google Scholar
  33. Herbert, C. M. H. (1989) Talking of Silence: the Sexual Harrassment of Schoolgirls (London: Falmer).Google Scholar
  34. Hobbs, D. (1988) Doing the Business (Oxford: Clarendon Press).Google Scholar
  35. Hobbs, D. (1995) Bad Business (Oxford: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
  36. Kettle, M. and Bowcott, O. (1997) ‘Analysis: Computer Crime’, The Guardian, 12 December.Google Scholar
  37. Lamplugh, D. (1997) ‘Personal Safety at Work: Issues, the Law and Practice’, in International Journal of Risk, Security and Crime Prevention, 2(1).Google Scholar
  38. Laycock, G. (1984) Reducing Burglary: a Study of Chemists’ Shops, Crime Prevention Unit Paper, No. 1 (London: Home Office).Google Scholar
  39. Leonard, M. (1994) Informal Economic Activity in Belfast (Aldershot: Avebury).Google Scholar
  40. Levi, M. (1981) The Phantom Capitalists (London: Gower).Google Scholar
  41. Levi, M. (1987) Regulating Fraud: White-Collar Crime and the Criminal Process (London, New York: Tavistock).Google Scholar
  42. MacDonald, R. (1994) ‘Fiddly Jobs, Undeclared Working and the Something for Nothing Society’, Work, Employment and Society, 8(4), 5–7–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Maguire, M. (1982) Burglary in a Dwelling: the Offence, the Offender and the Victim, Cambridge Studies in Criminology (London: Heinemann).Google Scholar
  44. Mars, G. (1974) ‘Dock Pilferage’, in P. Rock and M. Macintosh (eds.), Deviance and Social Control (London: Tavistock).Google Scholar
  45. Mars, G. (1994) Cheats at Work: an Anthropology of Workplace Crime (Aldershot: Dartmouth).Google Scholar
  46. Mars, G. and Frosdick, S. (1997) ‘Operationalising the Theory of Cultural Complexity: a Practical Approach to Risk Perceptions and Workplace Behaviours’, International Journal of Risk, Security and Crime Prevention 2(1).Google Scholar
  47. Mars, G. and Nicod, M. (1981) ‘Hidden Rewards at Work: the Implications from a Study of British Hotels’, in S. Henry (ed.), Can I Have it in Cash? A Study of Informal Institutions and Unorthodox Ways of Doing Things (London: Astragal Books).Google Scholar
  48. Mayhew, P., Elliott, D. and Dowds, L. (1989) The 1988 British Crime Survey, Home Office Research Study, No. 111 (London: HMSO).Google Scholar
  49. McLeod, E. (1982) Women Working: Prostitution Now (London: Croom Helm).Google Scholar
  50. Muncie, J. and McLoughlin, E. (1996) The Problem of Crime (London and Buckingham: Sage in association with the Open University).Google Scholar
  51. Munday, R. (1986) ‘Who are the Shoplifters?’, New Society.Google Scholar
  52. Naffine, N. and Gale, F. (1989) ‘Testing the Nexus: Crime, Gender and Unemployment’, British Journal of Criminology, 29(2), 1989, 144–56.Google Scholar
  53. Nelken, D. (1997) ‘White Collar Crime’, in M. Maguire, R. Morgan and R. Reiner (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, 2nd edn. (Oxford: Clarendon).Google Scholar
  54. Noaks, L. and Christopher, S. (1990) ‘Why are Police Assaulted?’ Policing, Winter, 625–38.Google Scholar
  55. Norris, D. (1990) Violence Against Social Workers (London: Jessica Kingsley).Google Scholar
  56. Oakley, A. (1974) The Sociology of Housework (London: Martin Robertson).Google Scholar
  57. Pearce, F. (1976) Crimes of the Powerful (London: Pluto).Google Scholar
  58. Punch, M. (1996) Dirty Business: Exploring Corporate Misconduct Analysis and Cases (London: Sage).Google Scholar
  59. Ruggiero, V., South, N and Taylor, I. (1998) The New European Criminology (London: Routledge).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Schwendinger, H. and Schwendinger, J. (1975) ‘Defenders of Order or Guardians of Human Rights?’ in I. Taylor, P. Walton and J. Young (eds.), Critical Criminology (London: Routledge).Google Scholar
  61. Shapland, J. (1998) ‘Looking at Opportunities in the Informal Economy of Cities’, in H. J. Albrecht and J. Shapland (eds.), Informal Economies: Threats and Opportunities in the City (Freiburg Im Breisgau: Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Criminal Law).Google Scholar
  62. Sheley, J. F. (1995) (2nd edn), Criminology: a Contemporary Handbook (London: Wadsworth Publishing Company).Google Scholar
  63. Smith, L. J. F. (1987) Crime in Hospitals: Diagnosis and Prevention, Crime Prevention Unit Paper, No. 7 (London: Home Office).Google Scholar
  64. Smith, S. (1986) Britain’s Shadow Economy (Oxford: Clarendon Press).Google Scholar
  65. Sutherland, E. W. (1949) White Collar Crime (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston).Google Scholar
  66. Sutton, M. (1998) Handling Stolen Goods and Theft: a Market Reduction Approach, Home Office Research and Statistics Directorate Research Findings, No. 69 (London: HMSO).Google Scholar
  67. Walsh, D. (1986) Heavy Business: Commercial Burglary and Robbery (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pamela Davies and Victor Jupp 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pamela Davies
    • 1
  • Victor Jupp
    • 2
  1. 1.University of NorthumbriaNewcastleUK
  2. 2.University of NorthumbriaNewcastleUK

Personalised recommendations