Determinants of Net Capital Flows in Developing Countries
A fundamental question concerning capital movements in developing economies is tackled in this chapter. After suggesting a (qualified) positive answer to the question: ‘Were developing countries (DCs) open to international capital movements during 1960–88?’ in Chapter 5, we now ask: ‘What determined the distribution of net capital flows across DCs in the same period?’ While Chapter 5 addresses an issue which is preliminary with respect to the central topics of this volume, this chapter goes right to core of the growth-theoretical approach to capital flows — indeed, it would not be arbitrary to view it as the empirical counterpart of Chapter 3.
KeywordsIncome Malaysia Argentina Dura Indonesia
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Notes and References
- 1.Uzawa (1965) argued that ‘human capital’ is only partially approximated by education and it includes other items such as health and some kinds of infrastructures and public goods.Google Scholar
- 2.See Gundlach (1994), OECD (1998); the topic of the returns to investment in education is extensively treated in Psacharopoulos (1994), among others.Google Scholar
- 3.A drawback of Romer’s (1990) regressions is that he uses data on the literacy ratio — admittedly of poor quality — as a proxy for the level of human capital.Google Scholar
- 4.Klenow (1998) provides an empirical comparison among alternative endogenous growth models based on US industry data.Google Scholar
- 5.Alternatively we also tried total GDP as a scale indicator; the two variables are strongly correlated.Google Scholar
- 6.Levine and Zervos (1993) argue that this should always be the correct economic interpretation of cross-section regressions.Google Scholar
- 7.Similar results are found using GDP as a scale variable.Google Scholar
- 8.See Edwards (1993, 1998a) for a thorough evaluation of the degree of trade openness and of its contribution to economic growth in DCs.Google Scholar
- 9.All other developing economies in the sample belong to Latin America.Google Scholar
- 10. The initial value of per capita income is already included in the regression. The interaction term (the saving rate times initial per capita income) is not statistically significant.Google Scholar
- 11.We neglect the contribution of the elderly population that is likely to be quantitatively less relevant, and more controversial, in DCs (see Bloom and Williamson, 1997, p. 16).Google Scholar