Although the concept of poverty and research into poverty has a long tradition in the UK this is not the case in other European countries, where poverty research is much more recent. However, it is the term ‘social exclusion’ which is now much more widely used, initially in continental European countries but now also in the UK. This concluding chapter distinguishes between the concepts of poverty and social exclusion and discusses how social exclusion is now being used to chart the changing nature of social disadvantage in Europe. A central concern of the chapter is to link the literature on social exclusion with the debate on welfare regimes and labour market participation and mechanisms of social protection. Drawing on recent comparative analyses, this chapter also considers how women and ethnic minorities, as well as different social classes, are included or excluded in different welfare regimes.
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