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The Obstacles to a Middle East Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone

  • Gerald M. Steinberg

Abstract

It is increasingly clear that progress towards the goal of a nuclearweapon-free world, as outlined in the Report of the Canberra Commission on the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons,1 will require a series of regional agreements and frameworks that go beyond the scope of existing frameworks. The nuclear-weapon-free zones (NWFZ) that have been negotiated and implemented in Latin America, the South Pacific, Southeast Asia and, most recently, Africa, provide examples. Other areas in which multifaceted regional approaches will be required include South Asia, the Korean peninsula and the Middle East.

Keywords

Middle East Nuclear Weapon Verification System Peace Treaty Peace Process 
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Notes

  1. 2.
    See, for example, Jan Prawitz and James F. Leonard, A Zone Free of Weapons of Mass Destruction in the Middle East (Geneva: UNIDIR, 1996).Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    Ibid., pp. 63–5. These issues are also considered in Shalhevet Freier, ‘A Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in the Middle East and Effective Verification’, Disarmament: A Periodic Review by the United Nations 16: 3 (1993), pp. 66–91.Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    For a detailed history of the role of the United Nations in this issue, see Mahmoud Karem, A Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in the Middle East: Problems and Prospects (New York: Greenwood, 1988);Google Scholar
  4. Avi Beker, Disarmament Without Order: The Politics of Disarmament in the United Nations (Westport: Greenwood, 1985);Google Scholar
  5. Avi Beker, ‘A Regional Non-Proliferation Treaty for the Middle East’, in Louis Rene Beres, ed., Security or Armageddon: Israel’s Nuclear Strategy (Lexington, MA.: Lexington Books, 1985).Google Scholar
  6. 9.
    Se Gerald M. Steinberg, ‘Non-Proliferation: Time for Regional Approaches?’, Orbis 38 (Summer 1994), pp. 409–24.Google Scholar
  7. 13.
    Mohamed Nabil Fahmy, ‘Egypt’s disarmament initiative’, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 46 (November 1990), p. 10.Google Scholar
  8. 14.
    Bruce Jentleson, ‘The Middle East Arms Control and Regional Security (ACRS) Talks: Progress, Problems, and Prospects’ (San Diego: University of California, IGCC Policy Paper 26, September 1996).Google Scholar
  9. 15.
    Mohamed Shaker, ‘Prospects for Establishing a Zone Free of Weapons of Mass Destruction in the Middle East’, Director’s Series on Proliferation, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 6 (1994), p. 22.Google Scholar
  10. 17.
    Shalheveth Freier, ‘A Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone (NWFZ) in the Middle East and its Ambiance’, unpublished manuscript (1992). An edited version of this paper was published as ‘A Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in the Middle East and Effective Verification’, in Disarmament: A Periodic Review by the United Nations 16:3 (1993), pp. 66–91.Google Scholar
  11. 19.
    Asher Arian, ‘Israel and the Peace Process: Security and Political Attitudes in 1993’, Tel Aviv University, Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies, Memorandum No. 39, February 1993, p. 12.Google Scholar
  12. 20.
    For analyses of the NPT issue in Israeli–Egyptian relations, see Gerald M. Steinberg, ‘The 1995 NPT Extension and Review Conference and the Arab–Israeli Peace Process’, NonProliferation Review 4 (Fall 1996), pp. 17–30;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fawaz A. Gerges, ‘Egyptian–Israeli Relations Turn Sour’, Foreign Affairs 74 (May/June 1995), pp. 69–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 21.
    There is a vast literature debating the role of deterrence, particularly during the Cold War. For one of the most comprehensive critiques, see Richard N. Lebow and Janice G. Stein, We All Lost the Cold War (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerald M. Steinberg

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