Humanitarian Intervention in the 1990s and Beyond: An International Law Perspective

  • Wil D. Verwey
Part of the Institute of Social Studies, The Hague book series (ISSTH)


In international law, the concept of ‘humanitarian intervention’ has a fairly well-established meaning, which differs from, and is narrower than, the way the concept seems to be understood in political science and the sociology of international relations. In the literature of these disciplines, the concept is not seldom vaguely circumscribed, if at all, with the meaning of the terms ‘intervention’ and/or ‘humanitarian’ left unclear. Apparently, in these disciplines, the concept can be used more or less at one’s discretion, according to the individual author’s preference, comprising virtually any possible form of (external) interference with human rights issues. This is not the case in international law, in which the concept has a more confined meaning determined by the various legal conditions and consequences of specific modalities of foreign interference with human rights violations.


United Nations Armed Force Security Council Humanitarian Intervention Enforcement Action 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Akehurst, M. (1977) ‘The Use of Force to Protect Nationals Abroad’, International Relations. 5: 3–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anand, R.P. (1972) New States and International Law. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.Google Scholar
  3. d’Angelo, J.R. (1981) ‘Resort to Force by States to Protect Nationals: The US Rescue Mission to Iran and its Legality under International Law’, Virginia Journal of International Law. 21 (3): 485–519.Google Scholar
  4. Baxter, R. & Th. Franck (1973) ‘The Present’ in Lillich (ed.), pp. 1–228.Google Scholar
  5. Blackshield, A.R. (ed.) (1983) Legal Change. Essays in Honour of Julius Stone. Sidney etc.: ButterworthGoogle Scholar
  6. Bowett, D.W. (1972) ‘Reprisals Involving Recourse to Armed Force’, American Journal of International Law. 66: 1–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bowett, D.W. (1985) ‘The Use of Force for the Protection of Nationals Abroad’, in Cassese (ed.), pp. 39–55.Google Scholar
  8. Brownlie, I. (1973) ‘Humanitarian Intervention’, in Lillich (ed.) pp. 139–48.Google Scholar
  9. Brownlie, I. (1974) ‘Humanitarian Intervention’ in Moore (ed.), pp. 217–28.Google Scholar
  10. Cassese, A. (ed.) (1973) The International Regulation of Force: Current Developments. Dordrecht, Boston, Lancaster: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.Google Scholar
  11. Council on Foreign Relations (ed.) (1979) Enhancing Global Human Rights. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  12. Damrosh, L.F. (ed.) (1993) Enforcing Restraint, Collective Intervention in Internal Conflicts. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press.Google Scholar
  13. Fairley, H.S. (1980) ‘State Actors, Humanitarian Intervention and International Law: Reopening Pandora’s Box’, Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law. 10 (Winter): 29–63.Google Scholar
  14. Falk, R.A. (1969) ‘The Beirut Raid and the International Law of Retaliation’, American Journal of International Law. 63: 415–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Falk, R.A. (ed.) (1969) The Vietnam War and International Law. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Falk, R.A. (1995) ‘The Haiti Intervention: A Dangerous World Order Precedent for the United Nations’, Harvard International Law Journal. 36 (2): 341–58.Google Scholar
  17. Farer, T.J. (1969) ‘Harnessing Rogue Elephants: a Short Discourse on Intervention in Civil Strife’, in Falk (ed.), pp. 1089–116.Google Scholar
  18. Fenwick, C.G. (1945) ‘Intervention: Individual and Collective’, American Journal of International Law. 39 (4): 645–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Flinterman, C. (1978) ‘Humanitarian Intervention or How Long Must the World Stand Idly By?’, NJCM Bulletin (Nederlands Tijdschrift voor de mensenrechten) [Netherlands Journal for Human Rights — Bulletin published by Netherlands Lawyers Committee for Human Rights]. 3(9/10): 11–21.Google Scholar
  20. Fonteyne, J.P.L (1974) ‘The Customary International Law Doctrine of Humanitarian Intervention: its Current Validity under the UN Charter’, California Western International Law Journal. 4: 205–70.Google Scholar
  21. Franck, T.M. & N.S. Rodley (1973) ‘After Bangladesh: The Law of Humanitarian Intervention by Military Force’, American Journal of International Law. 67 (1): 275–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Frey-Wouters (1973) ‘Conference Proceedings’, in Lillich (ed.), pp. 3–135Google Scholar
  23. Friedmann, W. (1973) ‘Conference Proceedings’, in Lillich (ed.), pp. 3135.Google Scholar
  24. Ganji, M. (1972) International Protection of Human Rights. Geneva: E. Droz, Paris: Minard.Google Scholar
  25. ICJ (1949) ‘Judgement on the Corfu Channel Case, 15 February 1949’, in ICJ Reports (1949).Google Scholar
  26. ICJ (1986) ‘Judgement on the case concerning military and paramilitary activities in and against Nicaragua (Merits)’, in ICJ Reports, ( 1986 ), 12, 76.Google Scholar
  27. International Commission of Jurists (1972) The Events in East Pakistan, 1971. London.Google Scholar
  28. Jones, B.D. (1995) ‘Intervention Without Borders: Humanitarian Intervention in Rwanda 1990–94’, Millenium Journal of International Studies. 24 (2): 225–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Krift, T.R. (1977) ‘Self-defense and Self-help: The Israeli Raid on Entebbe,’ Brooklyn Journal of International Law. 4 (Fall): 43–62.Google Scholar
  30. Lillich, R.B. (1970) ‘Forcible Self-help under International Law’, Naval War College International Law Studies Review. 62: 129–38.Google Scholar
  31. Lillich, R.B. (ed.) (1973) Humanitarian Intervention and the United Nations. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.Google Scholar
  32. Lillich, R.B. (1974) ‘Humanitarian Intervention: A Reply to Ian Brownlie and a Plea for Constructive Alternatives’, in Moore (ed.), pp. 229–51.Google Scholar
  33. Malanzcuk, P. (1993) Humanitarian Intervention and the Legitimacy of the Use of Force. Inaugural lecture, University of Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  34. Manin, A (1978) ‘L’intervention Francaise au Shaba’, Annuaire de Droit International. 24: 159–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Meuffels, J. (1980) De Verenigde Naties en de Handhaving van de Vrede. Katwijk aan Zee: Albédon/Klop.Google Scholar
  36. Mirvahabi, F. (1978) ‘Entebbe: Validity of Claims in International Law’, Revue de Droit Pénal Militaire. 17 (4): 627–76.Google Scholar
  37. Moore, J.N. (1969) ‘The Control of Foreign Intervention in Internal Conflict’, Virginia Journal of International Law. 9 (2): 205–342.Google Scholar
  38. Moore, J.N. (ed.) (1974) Law and Civil War in the Modern World. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Ofodile, A.C. (1994) ‘The Legality of ECOWAS Intervention in Liberia’, Columbia Journal of Transnational Law. 32.Google Scholar
  40. Oppenheim, L. & H. Lauterpacht (1955) International Law. London: Longmans.Google Scholar
  41. Reisman, M. (1973) ‘A Humanitarian Intervention to Protect the Ibo’s’, in Lillich (ed.), pp. 176–95.Google Scholar
  42. Rodley, N.S. (1979) ‘Monitoring Human Rights Violations in the 1980s’, in Council on Foreign Relations (ed.) Enhancing Global Human Rights. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  43. Röling, B.V.A. (1983) ‘On the Prohibition of the Use of Force’, in Black-shield (ed.), pp. 274–98.Google Scholar
  44. Sarooshi, D. (1994) ‘Humanitarian Intervention and International Humanitarian Assistance: Law and Practice’, Wilton Park Paper, London.Google Scholar
  45. Sauer, E. (1952) System des Völkerrechts. Bonn: Roehrscheid.Google Scholar
  46. Schutter, B. de (1972) ‘De Rol van de Verenigde Naties in Humanitaire Interventies’, in Miscellanea W.J. Ganshof van der Meersch. Brussels, pp. 435–53.Google Scholar
  47. Schwartz, U. (1970) Confrontation and Intervention in the Modern World. New York: Oceana Publishers.Google Scholar
  48. Seidl-Hohenveldern, I. (1980) Völkerrecht. Köln, etc.: Heymann.Google Scholar
  49. Stone, J. (1958) Aggression and World Order. London: Stevens.Google Scholar
  50. Stone, J. (1959) Legal Controls of International Conflict. London: Stevens.Google Scholar
  51. Stone, J. (1974) Of Law and Nations. Buffalo: Hein.Google Scholar
  52. Stowell, E.C. (1921) Intervention in International Law. Washington, D.C.: J. Byrne.Google Scholar
  53. Teson, F.R. (1988) Humanitarian Intervention: An Inquiry into Law and Morality. New York: Transnational Publishers Inc.Google Scholar
  54. UNGA (1950) Resolution 377 (V), 3 November 1950, ‘Uniting for Peace’.Google Scholar
  55. UNGA (1965a) Resolution 2022 (XX), on Rhodesia.Google Scholar
  56. UNGA (1965b) Resolution 2074 (XX), on Namibia.Google Scholar
  57. UNGA (1966) Resolution 2184 (XXI), on Portuguese territories in Africa.Google Scholar
  58. UNGA (1967) Resolution 2262 (XXII), on South Africa.Google Scholar
  59. UNGA (1970) Resolution 2625 (XXV), 24 October 1970, ‘Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Co-Operation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations’.Google Scholar
  60. UNSC (1966) Resolution 232, on Rhodesia.Google Scholar
  61. UNSC (1977) Resolution 418, 4 November 1977, on arms embargo South Africa.Google Scholar
  62. UNSC (1991) Resolution 688, 5 April 1995, on Iraq.Google Scholar
  63. UNSC (1992a) Resolution 713, 25 September 1991, on Bosnia.Google Scholar
  64. UNSC (1992b) Resolution 770, 13 August 1992, on Bosnia.Google Scholar
  65. UNSC (1992c) Resolution 771, 13 August 1992, on Bosnia.Google Scholar
  66. UNSC (1992d) Resolution 787, 16 November 1992, on BosniaGoogle Scholar
  67. UNSC (1992e) Resolution 794, 3 December 1992, on Chapter VII action Somalia.Google Scholar
  68. UNSC (1993a) Resolution 816, 31 March 1993, on enforcement ban on flights Bosnia.Google Scholar
  69. UNSC (1993b) Resolution 824, 6 April 1993, on safe areas Bosnia.Google Scholar
  70. UNSC (1993c) Resolution 836, 4 June 1993, on extension UNPROFOR mandate Bosnia.Google Scholar
  71. UNSC (1993d) Resolution 872, 5 October 1993, on establishment UNAMIR, Rwanda.Google Scholar
  72. Verwey, W.D. (1985) ‘Humanitarian Intervention under International Law’, Netherlands International Law Review. XXXII (3): 357–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Whipman, D. (1993) ‘Enforcing the Peace, ECOWAS and the Liberian Civil War’, in Damrosh (ed.), pp. 157–203.Google Scholar
  74. Wijnen-Thomas, A. van & A.J. Thomas (1956) Non-Intervention. The Law and its Impact in the America’s. Dallas: Southern Methodist University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Wijnen-Thomas, A. van & A.J. Thomas (1972) The Concept of Aggression in International Law. Dallas: Southern Methodist University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Social Studies 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wil D. Verwey

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations