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Over three decades have passed since the issue of environment and development received international recognition in the 1972 United Nations Conference on Human Environment held in Stockholm. Although awareness of the relation between environment and the concept of sustainable development, with all its connotations, was coined some years later, the following decades witnessed a marked retreat from social concerns. The natural science disciplines made increasing efforts to bring to our attention urgent but complex problems bearing on our very survival. These included a warming globe, threats to the eartht’s ozone layer, and deserts consuming agricultural land. As a consequence, environmental degradation has become a survival issue for both rich and developing nations (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987:xi).
KeywordsSoil Erosion Environmental Degradation External Debt Structural Adjustment Programme Southern African Region
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