Planning care is a complex process that involves all kinds of thinking, playing with ideas, trying them out and learning from experience. Thinking is a distinctive characteristic of mankind and is considered to distinguish humans from other animals. How do children learn to think? What are we referring to when we say we are thinking? What are the links between inherited characteristics and environmental influences? How do language, cognitive development and problem-solving skills interrelate? Is intelligence fixed at birth, or does it change through life? Can a person learn to think? Is creativity a type of problem-solving, and can it be learned? How is playing related to thinking and planning? In what ways can play contribute to development and therapy? Would adults benefit from more play or different kinds of play? How can education be improved? This chapter gives information on some of the approaches which attempt to address these questions.
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