TQM, Organisational Change and Human Resource Management
As we have seen, the proponents of TQM define quality in terms of customer requirements, or ‘fitness for use’ (Duran, 1989). Those employees who do not have direct contact with external customers are encouraged to view their colleagues as customers, linked ultimately via a chain of internal customer relationships to the final (external) customer. In this way, employees in the organisation are exhorted to be customer-driven, with the aim of continuously improving customer satisfaction. There are implications for the workforce, as employers are urged to move away from supervisory approaches to quality control towards a situation where employees themselves take responsibility (Oakland, 1993: 31). Thus, the effective implementation of TQM requires that all employees, from top management to the shop or office floor, develop a commitment to continuous improvement as an integral part of their daily work. There is a need to develop a ‘quality culture’ (Hill, 199lb: 555; Dale and Cooper, 1992: 153; Glover, 1993; Wilkinson and Ackers, 1995).
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