Environmental Scarcities and Conflict: Assessing the Evidence in the Asia-Pacific Region

  • Philip Howard


A debate now rages over the importance of evidence collected by researchers in the field of ‘ecological security’, an area of enquiry which examines the role of ecological factors in a growing number of conflicts around the world. A significant body of literature, consisting mostly of case studies, has been produced by research projects around the world; each has in some way addressed the methodological problems of exploring a question of ‘causation’ in a situation involving both complex ecological and social systems. The best of these case studies are careful to explain that ecological factors in conjunction with other political and economic factors are responsible for creating situations of conflict. Still, the most common critique of the field of ‘ecological security’ is that too much emphasis is placed on the ‘ecological’. Given the wide range of methodologies employed, it is also hard to gather together evidence for easy comparison. These uncertainties can be addressed with careful use of the recently developed ‘environmental scarcities’ rubric and a contextual weighing of ecological, economic and political elements causing conflict.


Environmental Degradation State Capacity Ecological Security Powerful Group Violent Conflict 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1997

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  • Philip Howard

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