Abstract

Things — economic phenomena — change so rapidly in Japan these days that what are at the moment considered the most up-to-date developments are doomed to be outdated practically overnight. In 1985, I completed a report on Japan’s small multinationals for UNCTAD1 and thought I had captured the latest developments so that there would be no immediate need to update my analysis for a while, but my more recent trips to Japan have made me realise that more exciting changes are in the making in Japan’s small business sector, along with its large business sector — especially under the pressure of the ever-soaring yen, the pressure that has been letting market forces dictate the course of the Japanese economy in an unprecedented fashion.

Keywords

Europe Transportation Chlorine Marketing Paraffin 

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Notes

  1. 1.
    Terutomo Ozawa, ‘International Transfer of Technology by Japan’s Small and Medium Enterprises in Developing Countries’, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (Paris, 1985).Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    Osawa (1985). Also see Terutomo Ozawa, Multinationalism, Japanese Style: The Political Economy of Outward Dependency (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979).Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    John H. Dunning, International Production and the Multinational Enterprise (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1981).Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    Small Business Corporation, Chushokigyo Kaigai Shinshutsu Jireishu (case studies on small and medium firms’ overseas operations), SBC (Tokyo, 1986), and Japan Overseas Development Corporation, Chushokigyo Kaigai Toshi Kyoryoku Shikin Yushi Jigyo Jireishu (case studies on small and medium firms’ overseas investment and loans from the cooperation funds) (Tokyo: JODC, 1984).Google Scholar
  5. 11.
    Joseph A. Schumpeter, The Theory of Economic Development (Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press, 1949), p. 93.Google Scholar
  6. 14.
    Shoko Sogo Kenkyusho, Chushokigyo Shinjidai (A New Era for Small and Medium Firms) (Tokyo: Nikkan Kogyo Press, 1988), pp. 44–52.Google Scholar
  7. 17.
    See, for example, Kazuo Koike, ‘Human Resource Development and Labor-Management Relations,’ in Kozo Yamamura and Yasukichi Yasuba, The Political Economy of Japan, Vol. 1. The Domestic Transformation (Stanford: Standford University Press, 1987), pp. 291–321. Also, Shinichi Ichimura (ed.), Azia ni Nezuku Nihonteki Keiei (Japanese-Style Management Takes Root in Asia) (Tokyo: Tokyo Keizai Shinposha, 1988).Google Scholar
  8. 18.
    M. Aoki, ‘Innovative adaptation through the quasi-tree structure: An emerging aspect of Japanese enterpreneurship’, Zeitschrift für Nationalökonomie, vol. (4, 1984), pp. 25–35.Google Scholar
  9. 19.
    Raymond Vernon, ‘International Investment and International Trade in the Product Life Cycle’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 80 (1966), pp. 190–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Peter J. Buckley, Jaime Campos, Hafiz Mirza and the estate of Eduardo White 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Terutomo Ozawa

There are no affiliations available

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