Language Policies and Language Attitudes: Le Monde de la Francophonie

Part of the Modern Linguistics Series book series


Attitudes towards the French language in ‘le monde de la francophonie’ have been deeply influenced by language policies developed in France since the seventeenth century. Through vigorous and sometimes brutal language planning programmes, multilingual France emerged in this century as a unilingual French state. In addition to legislating against non-French languages, policy makers in France insured that only the ‘Ile de France’ dialect emerged as the prestige standard form of the language. By virtue of its population and cultural vitality, France today can still be considered the heart of the francophone world. Consequently, it seems appropriate to devote the first part of this chapter to the development of language attitudes in France.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Boudieu, P. (1977) ‘L’Économie des Échanges Linguistiques’, Langue Franpaise, 34, pp. 17–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bourhis, R. Y. (1981) ‘Cross-cultural Communication in Montreal: Some Survey and Field Data After Bill 101’, Paper Presented at the 42nd Annual Convention of the Canadian Psychological Association, Toronto.Google Scholar
  3. Bourhis, R. Y. and Genesee, F. (1980) ‘Evaluative Reactions to Code-switching Strategies in Montreal’, in Giles, H., Robinson, W. P. and Smith, P. (eds) Language: Social Psychological Perspectives ( Oxford: Pergamon Press ) pp. 335–43.Google Scholar
  4. Bourhis, R. Y., Giles, H. and Lambert, W. E. (1975) ‘Social Consequences of Accommodating One’s Style of Speech: A Cross-national Investigation’, International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 6, pp. 55–72.Google Scholar
  5. Calvet, L. J. (1974) Linguistique et Colonialisme ( Paris: Petite Bibliothèque Payot).Google Scholar
  6. Castonguay, C. and Marion, J. (1975) ‘L’Anglicisation du Canada’, La Monda Lingvo-Problemo, 5, pp. 145–56 (now: Language Problems and Language Planning).Google Scholar
  7. Daoust, D. (1982) ‘Corpus and Status Language Planning in Quebec’, in Cobrarrubias, J. (ed.) Progress in Language Planning: International Perspective ( The Hague: Mouton ).Google Scholar
  8. Deutsch, K. W. (1953) Nationalism and Social Communication ( Cambridge, MA: MIT Press).Google Scholar
  9. Douaud, P. (1979) ‘Canada and France: Main Trends in the Sociolinguistics of French’, Anthropological Linguistics, 21, pp. 163–81.Google Scholar
  10. Ferguson, C. (1959) ‘Diglossia’, Word, 15, pp. 325–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. FFHQ (1978) The Heirs of Lord Durham: Manifesto of a Vanishing People ( Ottawa: Fédération des Francophones Hors Québec).Google Scholar
  12. Fishman, J. A. (1967) ‘Bilingualism and Diglossia’, Journal of Social Issues, 23, pp. 29–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fishman, J. A. (1977) ‘Language and Ethnicity’, in Giles, H. (ed.) Language, Ethnicity and Intergroup Relations ( London: Academic Press ) pp. 15–57.Google Scholar
  14. Giles, H. and Bourhis, R. Y. (1976) ‘Methodological Issues in Dialect Perception: Some Social Psychological Perspectives’, Anthropological Linguistics, 18, pp. 294–304.Google Scholar
  15. Giles, H. and Powesland, P. F. (1975) Speech Style and Social Evaluation ( London: Academic Press).Google Scholar
  16. Goosse, A. (1970) ‘La Norme et les Écarts Régionaux’, Annales de la Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines de Nice, 12, pp. 91–105.Google Scholar
  17. Gordon, D. C. (1978) The French Language and National Identity ( The Hague: Mouton).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Guiraud, P. (1956) (7th edition, 1976) L’Argot. Collection Que Sais-Je? ( Paris: Presses Universitaires de France).Google Scholar
  19. Guiraud, P. (1965) (4th edition, 1978) Le Française Populaire. Collection Que Saisie? ( Paris: Presses Universitaires de France).Google Scholar
  20. Guiraud, P. (1968) (2nd edition, 1971) Patois et Dialectes Français. Collection Que Sais-Je? ( Paris: Presses Universitaires de France).Google Scholar
  21. Joy, R. J. (1972) Languages in Conflict ( Toronto: McClelland & Stewart).Google Scholar
  22. Joy, R. J. (1978) Les Minorités des Langues Officielles au Canada ( Montreal: C.D. Howe Institute).Google Scholar
  23. Labov, W. (1972) Sociolinguistic Patterns ( Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press).Google Scholar
  24. Lafont, R. (1973) ‘Sur le Problème National en France: Aperçu Historique’, Les Temps Modernes, 324–6, pp. 21–53.Google Scholar
  25. Laks, B. (1977) ‘Contribution Empirique a l’Analyse Socio-differentielle de la Chute de /r/ dans les Groupes Consonantiques Finals’, Langue Française, 34, pp. 109–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lambert, W. E. (1967) ‘A Social Psychology of Bilingualism’, Journal of Social Issues, 23, pp. 91–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lambert, W. E. (1979) ‘Language as a Factor in Intergroup Relations’, in Giles, H. and St Clair, R. N. (eds) Language and Social Psychology ( Oxford: Basil Blackwell and Baltimore: University Park Press ) pp. 186–92.Google Scholar
  28. Lambert, W. E., Hodgson, R., Gardner, R. C. and Fillenbaum, S. (1960) ‘Evaluational Reactions to Spoken Languages’, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 60, pp. 44–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Larimer, G. S. (1970) ‘Indirect Assessment of Intercultural Prejudices’, International Journal of Psychology, 5, pp. 189–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Léon, P. (1976) ‘Attitudes et Comportements Linguistiques: Problèmes d’Acculturation et d’Identité’, Cahier de Linguistique, 6, pp. 199–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lieberson, S. (1970) Language and Ethnic Relations in Canada ( New York: Wiley).Google Scholar
  32. Marcellisi, J. B. (1975) ‘L’Enseignement des Langues Régionales’, Langue Française, 25, pp. 1–12.Google Scholar
  33. Marcellisi, J. B. (1979) ‘Quelques Problèmes de l’Hégémonie Culturelle en France: Langue Nationale et Langues Régionales’, International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 21, pp. 63–80.Google Scholar
  34. Marks, C. T. (1976) ‘Policy and Attitudes Towards the Teaching of Standard Dialect: Great Britain, France, West Germany’, Comparative Education, 12, pp. 199–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Martinet, A. (1969) Le Français sans Fard ( Paris: Presses Universitaires de France).Google Scholar
  36. Mougeon, R. and Canale, M. (1979) ‘Maintenance of French in Ontario: Is Education in French Enough?’ Interchange, 9, pp. 30–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Person, Y. (1973) ‘Impérialisme Linguistique et Colonialisme’, Les Temps Modernes, 324–6, pp. 90–118.Google Scholar
  38. Ross, J. R. (1979) ‘Where’s English?’ in Fillmore, C. J., Kempler, D. and Wang, W. S. Y. (eds) Individual Differences in Language Ability and Language Behaviour ( New York: Academic Press ) pp. 127–63.Google Scholar
  39. Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism Book 1–4, (1969) (Ottawa: Queen’s Printer).Google Scholar
  40. Spilka, I. V. (1970) Force Study of Diglossia in French Canada ( Montreal: Mimeo Université de Montréal).Google Scholar
  41. Tabouret-Keller, A. (1981) ‘Introduction: Regional Languages in France: Current Research in Rural Situations’, International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 29, pp. 5–14.Google Scholar
  42. Viatte, A. (1969) La Francophonie ( Paris: Larousse).Google Scholar
  43. Baker, C. (1992) Attitudes and Language ( Clevedon: Multilingual Matters).Google Scholar
  44. Giles, H. and Robinson, W. P. (eds) (1990) Handbook of Language and Social Psychology ( Chichester: John Wiley & Sons ).Google Scholar
  45. Giles, H. and Coupland, N. (1991) Language: Contexts and Consequences ( Buckingham: Open University Press).Google Scholar
  46. Milroy, J. and Milroy, L. (1991) Authority in Language: Investigating Language Prescription and Standardisation. Second edition ( London: Routledge).Google Scholar
  47. Preston, D. (1989) Perceptual Dialectology ( Dordrecht: Foris).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Smith, P. M. (1985) Language, the Sexes and Society ( Oxford: Basil Blackwell).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Macmillan Publishers Limited 1997

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations