Advertisement

The Reagan Doctrine: War and Coercive Diplomacy

  • John Dumbrell
Chapter
  • 26 Downloads
Part of the American History in Depth book series (AHD)

Abstract

On 29 April 1985, Secretary Shultz gave a speech at the State Department to mark the tenth anniversary of the fall of Saigon. Against the advice of Dick Childress, NSC staff specialist on Vietnam, Shultz offered the most sustainedly upbeat account of the recent war yet attempted by a senior figure in the Reagan Administration. While admitting that ‘mistakes’ were made in ‘how the war was fought’, Shultz declared that there could now be no question as to the morality of US intervention. America’s ‘sacrifice was in the service of noble ideals — to save innocent people from brutal tyranny’. The Secretary of State emphasised that this interpretation of the war inevitably ‘affects our conduct in the present, and thus, in part, determines our future’. Reagan himself added that US troops in Vietnam had been ‘fed into the meatgrinder’ by leaders who had no ‘intention of allowing victory’. He agreed with Richard Nixon that 1973 was actually an American victory.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Note

  1. 1.
    G.P. Shultz, Turmoil and Triump? (New York: Scribner’s Sons, 1993) pp. 552–3; Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States, 198?, vol. 1 (Washington DC: US Government Printing Office, 1986) p. 454.Google Scholar
  2. See also G.C. Herring, ‘The “Vietnam Syndrome” and American Foreign Policy’, Virginia Quarterly Review, 5? (198?) 587–601.Google Scholar
  3. 2.
    C. Weinberger, Fighting For Peace: Seven Critical Years at the Pentago? (London: Michael Joseph, 1990) pp. 22, 253–4.Google Scholar
  4. 3.
    R.A. Melanson, Reconstructing Consensu? (New York: St Martin’s, 1991) p. 145. See also Tim?, 1 April 1985 (C. Krauthammer);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. B.W. Jentleson, ‘The Reagan Administration and Coercive Diplomacy’, Political Science Quarterl?, 106 (1991) 57–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cited in M. Turner, ‘Foreign Policy and the Reagan Administration’, in J.D. Lees and M. Turner, eds, Reagan’s First Four Year? (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1988) p. 141.Google Scholar
  7. 8.
    Shultz, Turmoil and Triump?, pp. 106–7. See also G.W. Ball, Error and Betrayal in Lebano? (Washington DC: Foundation for Middle East Peace, 1984).Google Scholar
  8. 11.
    See T.G. Fraser, The USA and the Middle East Since World War? (London: Macmillan, 1989) p. 183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 12.
    See W.B. Quandt, Peace Proces? (Washington DC: Brookings, 1993) p. 365.Google Scholar
  10. 14.
    See D.C. Martin and J. Walcott, Best Laid Plans: The Inside Story of America’s War against Terroris? (New York: Harper and Row, 1988) p. 192.Google Scholar
  11. 16.
    Congressional Quarterly Weekly Repor?, 19 April 1986, p. 839. See also H.H. Koh, The National Security Constitution: Sharing Power after the Iran-Contra Affai? (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990) p. 126.Google Scholar
  12. 17.
    M. Thatcher, The Downing Street Year? (London: Harper Collins, 1993) pp. 444, 449.Google Scholar
  13. 18.
    Cited in T.L. Deibel, ‘Why Reagan is Strong’, Foreign Polic?, 62 (1986) 108–25, at p. 116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 19.
    See T. Jacoby, ‘Reagan’s Turnaround on Human Rights’, Foreign Affair?, 64 (1986) 1066–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. On comparisons between the Carter and Reagan foreign aid record, see M. Stohl and D. Carleton, ‘The Foreign Policy of Human Rights: Rhetoric and Reality from Jimmy Carter to Ronald Reagan’, Human Rights Quarterl?, 7 (1985) 205–29;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. S.C. Poe, ‘Human Rights and Economic Aid Allocation under Ronald Reagan and Jimmy Carter’, American Journal of Political Scienc?, 36 (1992) 147–67;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. J.M. Lindsay, ‘Congress, Foreign Policy and the New Institutionalism’, International Studies Quarterl?, 38 (1994) 281–304, at p. 292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 20.
    See K.W. Thompson, ed., Foreign Policy in the Reagan Presidenc? (Lanham: University Press of America, 1993) pp. 107–8 (E. Abrams);Google Scholar
  19. M. Falcoff, ‘Uncomfortable Allies: US Relations with Pinochet’s Chile, in D. Pipes and A. Garfinkle, eds, Friendly Tyrants: An American Dilemm? (London: Macmillan, 1991) p. 277; Americas Watch, Failure: the Reagan Administration’s Human Rights Policy in 198? (New York: Helsinski Watch Lawyers’ Committee, 1984).Google Scholar
  20. 21.
    See D. Cingranelli, Ethics, American Foreign Policy and the Third Worl? (New York: St Martin’s, 1993) p. 199;Google Scholar
  21. also, R.H. Johnson, ‘Misguided Morality: Ethics and the Reagan Doctrine’, Political Science Quarterl?, 103 (1988) 509–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    See P.S. Khoury, ‘The Reagan Administration and the Middle East’, in D.E. Kyvig, ed., Reagan and the Worl? (New York: Praeger, 1990) p. 75.Google Scholar
  23. 24.
    See A. Acharya, US Military Strategy in the Gul? (London: Routledge, 1989) p. 133.Google Scholar
  24. 25.
    E. Hooglund, ‘Reagan’s Iran: Factions Behind US Policy in the Gulf’, Middle East Repor?, April 1988, p. 29.Google Scholar
  25. See also M. Viorst, ‘Iraq at War’, Foreign Affair?, 65 (1986–7) 349–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 27.
    Cited in R.A. Pastor, Whirlpool: US Foreign Policy toward Latin America and the Caribbea? (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992) p. 67.Google Scholar
  27. See also R. Gutman, Banana Diplomacy: The Making of American Policy in Nicaragua 1981–198? (New York: Simon and Schuster) p. 19.Google Scholar
  28. 30.
    Cited in R. Dallek, Ronald Reagan: The Politics of Symbolis? (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1984) p. 177.Google Scholar
  29. 36.
    Ibid?, April 1986, p. 32. See also E. Kenworthy, ‘Where Pennsylvania Avenue meets Madison Avenue’, World Policy Journa? 5 (1987–8) 107–27.Google Scholar
  30. 38.
    Cited in R.D. Schulzinger, American Diplomacy in the Twentieth Centur? (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994) p. 338.Google Scholar
  31. 39.
    Cited in T.G. Paterson, ‘Historical Memory and Illusive Victories: Vietnam and Central America’, Diplomatic Histor? 12 (1988) 1–18, p. 14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 42.
    V.P. Vaky, ‘Positive Containment in Nicaragua’, Foreign Polic? 68 (1987) 42–58, at p. 50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. See also L. Schoultz, National Security and United States Policy towards Latin Americ? (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987) p. 143.Google Scholar
  34. See also T. Carothers, In The Name of Democracy: US Policy toward Latin America in the Reagan Year? (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991).Google Scholar
  35. 43.
    See S. Welch, ‘American Public Opinion: Consensus, Cleavage and Constraint’, in D.P. Forsythe, ed., American Foreign Policy in an Uncertain Worl? (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984) p. 22;Google Scholar
  36. R. Sobel, ‘Public Opinion about United States intervention in El Salvador and Nicaragua’, Public Opinion Quarterl? 53 (1989) 114–28;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. E.C. Ladd, ‘Where the Public stands on Nicaragua’, Public Opinio? 9 (1987) 2–4, 59–60;Google Scholar
  38. E.R. Wittkopf, Faces of Internationalism: PublicOpinion and American Foreign Polic? (Durham: Duke University Press, 1990);Google Scholar
  39. B.W. Jentleson, ‘The Pretty Prudent Public’, International Studies Quarterl?, 36 (1992) 49–74, at p. 56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 44.
    See V. Gosse, ‘“The North American Front”: Central American Solidarity in the Reagan Era’, in M. Davis and M. Sprinkler, eds, Reshaping the US Left: Popular Struggles in the 1980? (London: Verso, 1988).Google Scholar
  41. 45.
    H. Sklar, Washington’s War on Nicaragu? (Boston: South End Press, 1988) p. 68; J. Kwitny, Endless Enemies: The Making of an Unfriendly Worl? (New York: Penguin, 1984) p. 369.Google Scholar
  42. 47.
    P. Gleijeses, ‘Resisting Romanticism’, Foreign Polic? 54 (1984) 122–38, at p. 133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 48.
    C.H. Fairbanks, ‘Gorbachev’s Global Doughnut’, in F.J. Fleron, E.P. Hoffman and R.F. Laird, eds, Contemporary Issues in Soviet Foreign Policy: From Brezhnev to Gorbache? (New York: De Gruyter, 1991) p. 603; Editors of Congressional Quarterly, US Foreign Policy: The Reagan Impac? (Washington DC: Congressional Quarterly, 1988) p. 73 (Wright).Google Scholar
  44. See also W. LaFeber, Inevitable Revolutions: The United States in Central Americ? (New York: Norton, 1993) pp. 292–95;Google Scholar
  45. W. Luers, ‘The Soviets and Latin America’, in R.F. Laird and E.P. Hoffman, eds, Soviet Foreign Policy in a Changing Worl? (New York: Aldine, 1986) at p. 839;Google Scholar
  46. W.R. Duncan, ‘Soviet Interests in Latin America’, Journal of Inter-American Studies and World Affair?, 26 (1984) 163–98, at p. 186;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. J.S. Adams, A Foreign Policy in Transition: Moscow’s Retreat from Central America and the Caribbea? (Durham: Duke University Press, 1992) at p. 24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 49.
    See J.A. Nathan and J.K. Oliver, Foreign Policy Making and the American Syste? (Boston: Little, Brown, 1987) p. 185;Google Scholar
  49. B. Woodward, Veil: The Secret Wars of the CIA 1981–198? (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986) at p. 49.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    See M. Damer, The Massacre at El Mozot? (New York: Vintage, 1992);Google Scholar
  51. J. Didion, ‘Something Horrible Happened in El Salvador’, New York Review of Book?, 14 July 1994, pp. 8–13.Google Scholar
  52. 51.
    Cited in J.D. Cockcroft, Neighbors in Turmoi? (New York: Harper and Row, 1989) p. 148.Google Scholar
  53. See also R. Bonner, Weakness and Deceit: US Policy and El Salvado? (New York: Times Books, 1984);Google Scholar
  54. M. McClintock, The American Connection: State Terror and Popular Resistance in Guatemal? (London: Zed Books, 1986).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    C.C. Menges, Inside the National Security Counci? (New York: Simon and Schuster. 1988) p. 104.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    K. Roberts, ‘Bullying and Bargaining: The United States, Nicaragua, and Conflict Resolution in Central America’, International Securit? 15 (1990) 67–93, p. 71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. See also W.M. LeoGrande, ‘Rollback or Contain-ment? The United States, Nicaragua and the Search for Peace in Central America’, International Securit? 11 (1986) 77–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 57.
    N. Reagan, My Turn: The Memoirs of Nancy Reaga? (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1989) p. 242.Google Scholar
  59. See also A.M. Haig, Cavea? (New York: Macmillan, 1984) p. 129.Google Scholar
  60. 58.
    See R. Gutman, ‘America’s Diplomatic Charade’, Foreign Polic? 56 (1984) 3–23;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. W. Goodfellow and J. Morrell, ‘From Contadora to Esquipulas to Sapoa and Beyond’, in T.W. Walker, ed., Revolution and Counterrevolution in Nicaragu? (Boulder: Westview, 1991).Google Scholar
  62. 59.
    Pastor, Whirlpoo?, p. 76. See also T.M. Leonard, ‘The United States, Costa Rica and Nicaragua, 1980–1984’, in H. Jones, ed., The Foreign and Domestic Dimensions of Modern Warfar? (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1988).Google Scholar
  63. 60.
    Cited in J. Muravchik, ‘The Nicaragua Debate’, Foreign Affair? 65 (1986–7) 366–82, p. 372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 62.
    P. Rodino, ‘International Law’, Christian Science Monito?, 27 February 1985. See also D.P. Forsythe, The Politics of International La? (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1990) ch. 3.Google Scholar
  65. 64.
    New York Time?, 24 May 1985. See also C.J. Arnson, Crossroads: Congress, the Reagan Administration, and Central Americ? (New York: Pantheon, 1989).Google Scholar
  66. 68.
    Cited in Sklar, Washington’s War on Nicaragu?, p. 217 (March, 1986).Google Scholar
  67. 70.
    Cited in M. Vanderlaan, ‘The Dual Strategy Myth in Central American Policy’, Journal of Inter-American Studies and World Affair?, 26 (1984) 199–222, at p. 201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 73.
    See Department of State Bulleti?, September 1982, p. 28; see also J. Cohen and J. Rogers, Inequity and Intervention: The Federal Budget and Central Americ? (Boston: South End Press, 1986) p. 22.Google Scholar
  69. 75.
    See J.S. Fitch, ‘The Decline of US Military Influence in Latin America’, Journal of Inter-American Studies and World Affair?, 35 (1993) 1–51;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. W. Little, ‘International Conflict in Latin America’, International Affair?, 63 (1986–7) 589–602, at p. 596;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. L.D. Langley, America and the Americas: The United States in the Western Hemispher? (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1989) p. 248.Google Scholar
  72. 76.
    R.J. Beck, The Grenada Invasion: Politics, Law and Foreign Policy Decisionmakin? (Boulder: Westview, 1993) p. 227.Google Scholar
  73. 77.
    See M.H. Morley, Imperial State and Revolution: The United States and Cuba 1952–198? (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987) pp. 317–66;Google Scholar
  74. P. Shearman, ‘The Soviet Union and Grenada under the New Jewel Movement’, International Affair?, 61 (1984–5) 661–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 78.
    See R.W. Burrowes, Revolution and Rescue in Grenad? (New York: Westport, 1988) p. 115;Google Scholar
  76. S. Davidson, Grenada: A Study in Politics and the Limits of International La? (Aldershot: Avebury, 1987).Google Scholar
  77. C.L. Powell, A Soldier’s Wa?, (London: Hutchinson, 1995) p. 292.Google Scholar
  78. 80.
    See M.E. Scranton, The Noriega Years: US-Panamanian Relations, 1981–199? (London: Lynne Rienner, 1991) pp. 105–7.Google Scholar
  79. See also R. Millett, ‘Looking Beyond Noriega’, Foreign Polic?, 71 (1988) 46–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 82.
    Cited in R. Crockatt, The Fifty Years War: The United States and the Soviet Union in World Politic?, 1941–199? (London: Routledge, 1995) p. 362.Google Scholar
  81. 84.
    See ibid.. Also, T.G. Paterson, ‘Oversight or Afterview? Congress, the CIA, and Covert Operations since 1947’, in M. Barnhart, ed., Congress and United States Foreign Polic? (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1987);Google Scholar
  82. T. Draper, A Very Thin Line: The Iran-Contra Affair? (New York: Hill and Wang, 1991) p. 596;Google Scholar
  83. L.K. Johnson, Americas Secret Power: The CIA in a Democratic Societ? (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989) p. 247;Google Scholar
  84. D. Oberdorfer, The Turn: How the Cold War Came to an En? (London: Cape, 1992) pp. 274–82.Google Scholar
  85. 86.
    Cited in R.J. Kessler, ‘Marcos and the Americans’, Foreign Polic?, 63 (1986) 40–57, at p. 57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 87.
    Cited in R.J. Kessler, Rebellion and Repression in the Philippine? (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989) p. 100.Google Scholar
  87. 88.
    D.B. Schirmer and S.R. Shalom, eds, The Philippine Reade? (Boston: South End Press, 1987) pp. 322–3.Google Scholar
  88. 89.
    See S. Karnow, In Our Image: America’s Empire in the Philippine? (New York: Random House, 1989) ch. 15.Google Scholar
  89. 90.
    R.A. Manning, ‘China: Reagan’s Chance Hit’, Foreign Polic?, 54 (1984) 83–101, p. 84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 91.
    See D. Shambaugh, ‘Patterns of Interaction in Sino-American Relations’ and T.W. Robinson, ‘Chinese Foreign Policy 1940s-1990s’, in T.W. Robinson and D. Shambaugh, eds., Chinese Foreign Policy: Theory and Practic? (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994)Google Scholar
  91. D. Shambaugh, Beautiful Imperialist: China Perceives America, 1972–199? (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991) ch. 6.Google Scholar
  92. 93.
    See A. Iriye, ‘US-Asian Relations in the 1980s’, in Kyvig, ed., Reagan and the Worl?; S.B. Linder, The Pacific Centur? (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1986).Google Scholar
  93. 94.
    See R.E. Bissell, South Africa and the United States: The Erosion of an Influence Relationshi? (New York: Praeger, 1982) p. 42.Google Scholar
  94. 95.
    Cited in P.J. Schraeder, United States Foreign Policy toward Africa: Incrementalism, Crisis and Chang? (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994) p. 220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 97.
    C.A. Crocker, High Noon in Southern Africa: Making Peace in a Rough Neighborhoo? (New York: Norton, 1992) p. 319.Google Scholar
  96. 98.
    See J. Davidow, ‘Zimbabwe is a Success’, Foreign Polic?, 49 (1982/3) 93–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 101.
    Crocker, High Noo?, p. 76. See also C.A. Crocker, ‘Southern Africa: Eight Years Later’, Foreign Affair?, 68 (1989) 144–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 107.
    R.G. Lugar, Letters to the Next Presiden? (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1988) p. 238.Google Scholar
  99. 108.
    See A. Lake, ‘Do the Doable’, Foreign Polic?, 54 (1984) 102–1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. See A. Lake, ‘Do the Doable’, Foreign Polic?, 54 (1984) 102–1; P.H. Baker, ‘Facing up to Apartheid’, Foreign Polic?, 64 (1986) 37–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 110.
    See ibid?, p. 462 for Crocker’s defence. Also, C.A. Crocker, ‘Peacemaking in Southern Africa: the Namibia-Angola Accord of 1988’, in D.D. Newsom, ed., The Diplomatic Record, 1989–199? (Boulder: Westview, 1991); M.G. Schatzberg, ‘Zaire under Mobutu’, in Piper and Garfinkle, eds., Friendly Tyrants? Google Scholar
  102. 111.
    See J.A. Lefebvre, Arms For the Horn: US Security Policy in Ethiopia and Somali?, 1953–9? (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1991) p. 222.Google Scholar
  103. 112.
    Schraeder, United States Policy toward Afric?, p. 157; see also D. Laitin, ‘Security, Ideology and Development on Africa’s Horn’, in R.I. Rotberg, ed., Africa in the 1990s and Beyond: US Policy Opportunities and Change? (Algonac, Mich: Reference Publications, 1988).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© John Dumbrell 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Dumbrell
    • 1
  1. 1.Keele UniversityUK

Personalised recommendations