Running Up the Down Escalator: Developments in British Wildlife Policies after Mrs Thatcher’s 1988 Speeches

  • Stephen C. Young


This chapter examines issues relating to wildlife in Great Britain during the period between Mrs Thatcher’s 1988 speeches on the environment and the government’s response to the Rio Summit of 1992,1 which came in January 1994 when the DoE published four reports on sustainable development and related issues (DoE, 1994a, 1994b, 1994c, 1994d). The argument of the chapter is that Thatcher’s speeches had little significance in the sphere of wildlife conservation. The period from September 1988 through to January 1994 can best be seen as the second half of a period of change that began in the mid-1980s. The publication of the biodiversity action plan provides a natural cut-off point (DoE, 1994c). Before analysing the pre-1988 developments, and the issues relating to the institutional and policy changes of the 1988–94 period, three contextual features need setting out.


Urban Renewal Issue Network Wildlife Corridor Mixed Sector Scottish Natural Heritage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, B. (1991), ‘SSSIs: Who Cares?’, Ecos, 12 (1), 59–64.Google Scholar
  2. Aitken, B. (1992), ‘The Cairngorms—Still More Paper, Still No Action’, Ecos, 13 (4), 54.Google Scholar
  3. Allan, P.(1994), Focus on Britain 1994 (Deddington: P. Allan).Google Scholar
  4. Avery, M. (1993), ‘Biodiversity: The UK Action Plan’, Ecos, 14(3/4), 70–1.Google Scholar
  5. Baldock, D. (1989), ‘The EC and Conservation in the Thatcher Decade’, Ecos, 10 (4), 33–7.Google Scholar
  6. Barrett, S. and Fudge, C. (1981), Policy and Action: Essays on the Implementation of Public Policy (London: Methuen).Google Scholar
  7. Bishop, J. and Rose J. (1992), ‘Dependence, Independence and Interdependence’, Ecos, 13 (1), 14–19.Google Scholar
  8. Bishop, K. and Philips, A. (1993), ‘Integrating Conservation, Recreation and Agriculture Through the Market Place’, Ecos, 14 (2), 36–46.Google Scholar
  9. Brenton, M. (1985), The Voluntary Sector in British Social Services (Harlow: Longman).Google Scholar
  10. British Wildlife: see Note 2 above.Google Scholar
  11. Brooke, R. (1989), Managing the Enabling Authority (Harlow: Longman).Google Scholar
  12. Brotherton, I. (1989), ‘What Voluntary Approach?’, Ecos, 10 (2), 36–40.Google Scholar
  13. Brown, R. (1992) ‘Site Protection in Northern Ireland: Why is Progress So Slow?’, Ecos, 13(2), 30–5.Google Scholar
  14. Buckley, P. (1989), ‘Planning for Conservation in Kent’, Ecos, 10(2), 21–6.Google Scholar
  15. Burton, T. (1990), ‘Sea Changes in Planning Policy’, Ecos, 11 (1), 52–3.Google Scholar
  16. Butterfly Conservation, (1993), Biodiversity Challenge: An Agenda for Conservation in the UK (Sandy: RSPB).Google Scholar
  17. Caldwell, N. (1993), ‘Cyngor Cefn Gwlad Cymru: Trying to Break the Mould’, Ecos, 14 (3/4), 42–7.Google Scholar
  18. Carson, R. (1962), Silent Spring (London: Hamish Hamilton).Google Scholar
  19. Clark, A. and O’Riordan, T. (1989), ‘A Case for a Farm Conservation Support Unit’, Ecos, 10 (2), 30–5.Google Scholar
  20. Colman, D., Froud, J. and O’Carroll, L. (1992), Comparative Effectiveness of Conservation Mechanisms (Manchester University: Dept of Agricultural Economics).Google Scholar
  21. Colman, D., Froud, J. and O’Carroll, L. (1993), ‘The Tiering of Conservation Policies’, Land-Use Policy, 281–92.Google Scholar
  22. Colman D. and Lee, N. (1988), Evaluation of the Broads Grazing Marshes Conservation Scheme (Manchester University: Dept of Agricultural Economics).Google Scholar
  23. Cox, G. and Lowe, P. (1984), (1984) ‘Agricultural Corporatism and Rural Conservation’, in T. Bradley and P. Lowe (eds), Locality and Rurality (Norwich: Geo Books).Google Scholar
  24. Cox, G., Lowe, P. and Winter, M. (1986), Agriculture and Conservation in Britain: A Policy Comunity Under Seige’, in G. Cox (eds), Agiculture: People and Policies (London: Allen & Unwin).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cox, G., Lowe, P. and Winter, M. (1990), (The Voluntary Principle in Conservation (Chichester: Packard Publishing).Google Scholar
  26. DoE (1985), Lifting the Burden (London: HMSO) Cmnd 9571.Google Scholar
  27. DoE (1990), This Common Inheritance (London: HMSO) Cmnd 1200.Google Scholar
  28. DoE (1992), This Common Inheritance: The Second Year Report (London: HMSO) Cmnd 2068.Google Scholar
  29. DoE (1994a), Sustainable Development: The UK Strategy (London: HMSO) Cmnd 2426.Google Scholar
  30. DoE (1994b), Climate Change: The UK Programme (London: HMSO) Cmnd 2427.Google Scholar
  31. DoE (1994c), Biodiversity: The UK Action Programme (London: HMSO) Cmnd 2428.Google Scholar
  32. DoE (1994d), Sustainable Forestry: The UK Programme (London: HMSO) Cmnd 2429.Google Scholar
  33. Dixon, J. (1992), ‘Environmentally Sensitive Farming—Where Next?’, Ecos, 13 (3), 15–19.Google Scholar
  34. Ebrahim, A. and Elliott, G. (1991), ‘Energy Policy and Bird Species’, Ecos, 12 (4), 21–8.Google Scholar
  35. Evans, D. (1992), A History of Nature Conservation in Britain (London: Routledge).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Farrington, J., (1993), Reluctant Partners: NGOs, the State and Sustainable Agricultural Development (London: Routledge).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Flynn, A. and Lowe, P. (1992), ‘The Greening of the Tories: The Conservative Party and the Environment’, in W. Rüdig (ed.), Green Politics Two (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press).Google Scholar
  38. Gibbons, D. al, (1993), The New Atlas of Breeding Birds in Britain and Ireland: 1988–91(London: Poyser).Google Scholar
  39. Goode, D. (1989), ‘Learning from Cities: An Alternative View’, Ecos, 10(4), 42–8.Google Scholar
  40. Grove-White, R. (1992), ‘Environmental Debate and Society—The Role of NGOs’, Ecos, 13 (1), 10–14.Google Scholar
  41. Harvard, M. and Ferns, P. (1993), ‘Cardiff Bay: A Cautionary Tale’, Ecos, 14 (2), 47–52.Google Scholar
  42. Haskins, L. (1991) ‘Canford Heath—Highly Publicised, Poorly Understood’, Ecos, 12 (1), 80–1.Google Scholar
  43. Healey. P., Davouchi, S., O’Toole, M. Tarranoyln, S. O., Usher, P. (1992), Rebuilding the City (London: Spon).Google Scholar
  44. Hill. J. and Jordan, A. (1993), The Greening of Government: Lessons from the White Paper Process’, Ecos, 13 (3/4), 3–9.Google Scholar
  45. Johnston, M. (1991), ‘The Forest We Live In’, Ecos, 12 (1), 65–8.Google Scholar
  46. King, D. S. (1993), ‘The Conservatives and Training Policy 1979–92’, Political Studies, 41, 214–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lomax, P. (1990), ‘Planning for Nature Conservation in Leicester’, Ecos, 11 (4), 20–6.Google Scholar
  48. Lowe, P. (1983), ‘Values and Institutions in the History of British Nature Conservation’, in A. Warren and F. B. Goldsmith (eds), Conservation in Perspective (New York: Wiley).Google Scholar
  49. Lowe, P., Cox, G. MacEwen, M. O’Riordan, T. and Winter, M. (eds) (1986), Countryside Conflicts: The Politics of Farming, Forestry, and Conservation (London: Gower & Maurice Temple Smith).Google Scholar
  50. Lowe, P. and Goyder, J. (1983), Environmental Groups in Politics (London: Allan & Unwin).Google Scholar
  51. Lowe, P., Murdoch, J,. Marsden, T., Muntaal, N. and Flynn, A. (1993), ‘Regulating the New Rural Spaces: The Uneven Development of Land’, Journal of Rural Studies, 9, 205–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Maguire, F. and Barkham, J. (1991), ‘The Coastal Environment: Managing Sea-Level Rise’, Ecos, 12 (2), 22–6.Google Scholar
  53. Malpass, P. and Marie, A. (1990), Housing Policy and Practice, 3rd edn. (London: Macmillan).Google Scholar
  54. Marren, P. and Rich, T. (1993), ‘Back from the Brink—Conserving our Rarest Flowering Plants’, British Wildlife, 4, 296–304.Google Scholar
  55. Marsden, T., Murdoch, J., Lowe, P., Munton, R. and Flynn, A. (1993), Constructing the Countryside, (London: UCL Press).Google Scholar
  56. Marsh, D. and Rhodes, R. A. W. (1991), Policy Networks in British Government (Oxford: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
  57. Mayes, B. and Smith, R. (1990), ‘Conservation Carve-Up’, Ecos, 11(2), 2–6.Google Scholar
  58. McCormick, J. (1991), British Politics and the Environment (London: Earthscan).Google Scholar
  59. Millward, A. (1990), ‘Urban Horizons’, Ecos, 11 (2), 17–19.Google Scholar
  60. Nicholson-Lord, D. (1987), The Greening of Cities (London: Routledge).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. O’Riordan, T. (1989), ‘Nature Conservation Under Thatcherism’, Ecos 10(4), 4–8.Google Scholar
  62. Owens, S. (1993), ‘Planning and Nature Conservation: The Role of Sustainability’, Ecos, 13(3/4), 15–22.Google Scholar
  63. Pearce, D. W.(1989), Blueprint fora Green Economy (London: Earthscan).Google Scholar
  64. Potter, C (1993), ‘Pieces in a Jigsaw: A critique of the New Agri-Environment Measures’, ECOS, 14(1), 52–4Google Scholar
  65. Pepper, S. (1993), ‘Scottish Natural Heritage: The Velvet Glove’, Ecos, 14 (3/4), 36–41.Google Scholar
  66. Petersen, J. (1990), ‘Heads Above Water’, Ecos, 11 (2), 49–50.Google Scholar
  67. Potter, C. (1993), ‘Pieces in a gigsaus: A critique of the Neww Agri-Environment Measures’, Ecos, 14 (1), 52–4Google Scholar
  68. Pye-Smith, C. and Rose, C. (1984), Crisis and Conservation: Conflict in the British Countryside, (Harmondsworth: Penguin).Google Scholar
  69. Ratcliffe, D. (1989), ‘The Nature Conservancy Council 1979–1989’, Ecos 10 (4), 9–15.Google Scholar
  70. Ratcliffe, D. (1993), ‘Nature Conservation and Afforestation Policy’, Ecos, 14 (2), 19–22.Google Scholar
  71. Rawcliffe, P. (1992a), ‘Swimming with the Tide—Environmental Groups in the 1990s’, Ecos, 13 (1), 2–9.Google Scholar
  72. Rawcliffe, P. (1926), ‘Lessons from the Bogs - What Now for the Peat Campaign?’, Ecos, 13(2), 41–7.Google Scholar
  73. Robinson, M. (1992), The Greening of British Party Politics (Manchester: Manchester University Press).Google Scholar
  74. Robson, B. (1989), Those Inner Cities (Oxford: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
  75. Rose, J. (1990), ‘Pocket Parks—Countryside Conservation by Local People’, Ecos, 11 (1), 7–11.Google Scholar
  76. Rotherham, 1. (1990), ‘An Endangered Species? Natural History Societies and Nature Conservation’, Ecos, 11 (2), 20–5.Google Scholar
  77. Rothwell, P. and Housden, S. (1990), Turning the Tide—A Future for Estuaries (Sandy: RSPB).Google Scholar
  78. Rowell, T. A. (1991), SSSIs: A Health Check (London: Wildlife Link).Google Scholar
  79. Rydin, Y. (1993), The British Planning System: An Introduction (London: Macmillan).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rydin, Y. and Grieg, S. (1995), ‘Talking Past Each Other?’. Local Environmentalists in Different Organisational Contexts, Environmental Politics, 4, in press.Google Scholar
  81. Sands, T. (1990), ‘Nature Conservation’s Political Clout’, Ecos, 11(2), 26–8.Google Scholar
  82. Shirely, P. and Knightsbridge, R. (1992), ‘Consultants and County Trusts -Unhappy Bedfellows?’, Eco, 13 (1), 27–31.Google Scholar
  83. Smith, T. (1990), ‘The County Trusts Forty Years On’, Ecos(2), 11, 12–16.Google Scholar
  84. Smyth. B.(1987), City Wildspace (London: Hilary Shipman).Google Scholar
  85. Stoker, G. (1991), The Politics of Local Government, 2nd edn. (London: Macmillan).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Stoker, G. and Young, S. C. (1993), Cities in the 1990s (Harlow: Longman).Google Scholar
  87. Thornley, A. (1991), Urban Planning under Thatcherism: The Challenge of the Market (London: Routledge).Google Scholar
  88. Tompkins, S. (1989), Forestry in Crisis (London: Christopher Helm).Google Scholar
  89. Tompkins, S. (1993), ‘Conifer Conspiracy’, Ecos, 14 (2), 23–7.Google Scholar
  90. Turner, R. (1993), ‘ Britain’s Forests—An Age of Enlightenment?’, Ecos, 14 (2), 14–19.Google Scholar
  91. Tyldesley, D. and Collis, 1. (1990), ‘Nature, Conservation and Local Government—A Review of Progress’, Ecos, 11 (4), 3–20.Google Scholar
  92. Tyler, S. (1992), ‘Dysgu Gwers: Lessons Learned from Welsh Planning’, Ecos, 13 (2), 24–9.Google Scholar
  93. Ward, S. (1993), ‘Thinking Global, Acting Local? British Local Authorities and their Environmental Plans’ Environmental Politics, 2, 453–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Warren, L. (1991), ‘Marine Nature Reserves: Fact or Fiction’, Ecos, 12(2), 35–9.Google Scholar
  95. Wilson, J. and Fuller, R. (1992), ‘Set-Aside: Potential and Management for Wildlife Conservation’, Ecos, 13 (3), 24–9.Google Scholar
  96. Woodford, G. and Oliver, P. F. (1992), ‘Stalling the Hereford Bypass—Turning Point or False Hope?’, Ecos, 13 (13), 19–22.Google Scholar
  97. Young, S. C. (1992), Changing Models of Government at the Local Level in Britain (Manchester: The Politics Association Resource Centre).Google Scholar
  98. Young, S. C. (1993), The Politics of the Environment (Manchester: Baseline Books).Google Scholar
  99. Young, S. C. (1994a), ‘The Environment’, in P. Allan, Focus on Britain 1994 (Deddington: P. Allan).Google Scholar
  100. Young, S. C. (1994b), ‘An Agenda 21 Strategy for the UK?’, Environmental Politics, 3, 325–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Yu II, L. (1993), ‘Forestry Policy and Practice’, Ecos, 14 (2), 27–31.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen C. Young

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations