Advertisement

The Seventh-Century Kingdom

  • Roger Collins
Chapter
Part of the New Studies in Medieval History book series (NSMH)

Abstract

It would be interesting to know something of the social and economic life of the peninsula during the Visigothic period. Some indications can be drawn from the regulations of the law codes but these provide at best an abstract and generalised impression. The peculiar and probably largely localised circumstances that caused the promulgation of particular laws cannot now be known, and insufficient wariness has been displayed in looking out for the presence of anachronistic rulings preserved from the Roman past to fill out the Visigothic written codes. As will be shown, the circumstances of the issuing of the seventh-century codes suggest that their functions were intended to be other than primarily utilitarian. However, despite the pitfalls to be encountered in attempting to use this class of evidence for a picture of life and society in the Visigothic centuries, it is possible from other sources to get more penetrating and particular glimpses of local conditions.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    V.P.E. (A3(b)), pp. 1–6.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Almagro Guia de Mérida, 6th ed. (Valencia, 1974).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    I. Richmond, ‘The First Years of Emerita Augusta’, Archaeological Journal, 87 (1930).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M.-H. Quet, La Mosaique Cosmologique de Mérida (Paris, 1981) which, however, argues for a second-century date.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    For the inscription see note 28 to ch. I; the mosaic is illustrated in R. Bianchi Bandinelli, Rome, the Late Empire (Eng. tr. London, 1971) plate 186, p. 195.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Espana Sagrada, XIII (Madrid, 1756), ch. 8.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    V.P.E. iv. ii. 1–18 (A3(b)), pp. 162–9.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    J.M. Alvárez Martinez, El puente romano de Mérida (Bádajoz, 1983) demonstrates that older ideas of the merchants coming by river are untenable, as the Guadiana is not navigable.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    P. Fabre, Saint Paulin de Nole et l’Amilié Chrétienne (Paris, 1949) p. 36; Augustine, Epistle 125, Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum, XLIV (Vienna, 1904) pp. 3–7.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    R.J.H. Collins, ‘Mérida and Toledo, 550–585’, V.S. (A2(b)). For xenodochiain Gaul see T. Sternberg, Orienlalium More Secutus (Münster, 1991).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Laurence was in origin a Spaniard from Huesca, but his cult began in Rome, of which Church he was traditionally a deacon.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    V.P.E. IV. x. 3–7 (A3(b)), pp. 186–9.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    V.P.E. V. iii. 11–12, p. 197.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    V.P.E. V. ii. 3–4, pp. 191, 192.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. de C. Serra Ráfols, La Villa Romana de la Dehesa de La Cocosa (Bádajoz, 1952).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    M.C. Diaz y Diaz (ed.), Vita Fructuosi, 2, (B4(b)), p. 82.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    I.N. Wood, ‘The Ecclesiastical Politics of Merovingian Clermont’, in P. Wormald (ed.), Ideal and Reality in the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 1983).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    H.J. Thomson (ed. and tr.), Perislephanon, III (Loeb Library, 1953) pp. 142–57.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. Fábrega Grau (ed.), Passionario Hispanico (2 vols, Madrid and Barcelona, 1955) vol. I, p. 255–60.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    C. García Rodriguez, El Culto de los Santos (B4(b)) pp. 284–303.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    For a comprehensive record of the material remains of Visigothic Mérida see M. Cruz Villalón, Mérida visigoda: la escultura arquitectönica y litúrgica (Bádajoz, 1985).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    P.Jaffé, Regesta Pontificum Romanorum, (Leipzig, 1885), no. 891. Gregory of Tours, Histories, II. 23 (see note 1 of ch. 2 above), tr. p. 61.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    V.P.E. v. xiv. 1–3 (A3(b)), pp. 254–5.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    R.J.H. Collins, ‘Mérida and Toledo, 550–585’ V.S. (A2(b)), pp. 199–200.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    V.P.E. III. 9 (A3(b)), pp. 158–9.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. Canellas López, Diplomática Hispano-Visigoda (Zaragoza, 1979) nos 119, 178, 192, and 229.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    V.P.E. III. 11–15 (A3(b)), pp. 158–61.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ars Hispaniae, II (Madrid, 1947), pp. 249–59.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hydatius, Chronicle (B2(a)), 213, 222, pp. 166, 170.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    C. Sánchez-Albornoz, Ruina y Extincion del Municipio Romana en España (Buenos Aires, 1943).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    L. Vázquez de Parga (ed.), Vita Aemiliani, 26, (Madrid, 1943) p. 34.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    A. Barbero and M. Vigil, Sobre los orígenes Sociales de la Reconquista (Barcelona, 1974) pp. 188–90. See also R. Collins, ‘Christianity and the Basques’, in idem, Law, Culture and Regionalism in Early Medieval Spain (Aldershot, 1992) item IX.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    x Toledo Canon 2, XVI Toledo Canon 10: Vives, Concilios (B4(b)), pp. 310, 509–12.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    R. Collins, The Basques (Oxford, 1986), pp. 71–98.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fredegar, Chronicle, IV. 73, ed. J.M. Wallace-Hadrill (London, 1960) pp. 61–2.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Julian, Historia Wambae, 27–9, ed. Levison (B4(b)), pp. 241–4.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Epistulae Bulgaranis Comitis, ed. J. Gil, Miscellanea Wisigothica (Seville, 1972) pp. 30–44.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Desiderii Episcopi Cadurcensis, Epistolae, II. 8, ed. W. Arndt, Corpus Christianorum Series Latina, CXVII (Turnholt, 1957) pp. 331–2.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    L.V. II. i. 8 (B2(b)), pp. 53–7; VI Toledo c. xii, Vives, Concilios (B4(b)), p. 241.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    C. Wickham, Early Medieval Italy (London, 1981) pp. 31–2.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Histmia Wambae, 3 (B2(b)), pp. 219–20.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Taio of Zaragoza, Epistola ad Quiricum, P.L. LXXX, c. 727.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fredegar, Chronicle, IV. 82, ed. Wallace-Hadrill (London, 1960) pp. 69–70.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    J. Vives, Concilios (B4(b)), pp. 226–48, esp. v Tol. c. vi, p. 229 and VI Toledo Canon xiv, p. 242.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    L.V. II. i. 6 (B2(b)), pp. 48–52; Vives, Concilios (B4(b)), p. 290.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Braulio, Ep. 37 (A4(b)), pp. 83–5, (B4(b)) p. 148.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    V Toledo Canons ii, iv, v, VI Toledo Canons xii, xvii, xviii, cf. XII Toledo Canon iii, all in Vives, Concilios (B4(b)); see also L.V. II. i. 6 (B2(b)), p. 52.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    E.A. Thompson, The Goths in Spain (A2(b)), p. 205.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    G. Martínez Díez, La Colección Canónica Hispana (Madrid, 1966) pp. 306–25.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Isidore, Ep. 10 (A4(b)), section 4, pp. 52–5.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    G.C. Miles, Coinage of the Visigoths (A3(b)), p. 321.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    XII Toledo canon I, Vives, Concilios (B4(b)), pp. 385–7.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    J. Vives, Concilios pp. 465–71.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Isidore, Etymologiae (B4(b)) IX. iii. 1–5; Sententiae, III. xlix-li; IV Toledo’Canon lxxv, Vives, Concilios (B4(b)), pp. 217–21.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Historia Wambae 2 (B2(b)), p. 218.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    C.P. Wormald, ‘Lex Scripta and Verbum Regis’ in P.H. Sawyer and I.N. Wood (eds), Early Medieval Kingship (Leeds, 1977) p. 130.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    P.D. King, ‘King Chindasvind and the First Territorial Law Code’ V.S. (A2(b)), pp. 131–57.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    L.V. (B2(b)), p. XIX = Manuscript R1, see Codices Latini Antiquiores, 111 (seventh century).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    C.L.A. nos 556, 617, 703a, 793, 950, 1059, 1064, 1199, 1324, 1362, 1395, 1576, 1637, 1752.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    León Cathedral manuscript 15 (C.L.A. 1637), see Z. García Villada, Catálogo de los Códices y documentos de la Catedral de León (Madrid, 1919) pp. 43–50.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    P.D. King, op. cit. p. 136.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    T. Mommsen (ed.), Codex Theodosianus, v. viii with Interpretatio (1904) pp. 224–5.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    VIII Toledo Decretum, Vives, Concilios (B4(b)), p. 294.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ibid. p. 295.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    L.V II. i. 8 (B2(b)), p. 54; on the breaking of the oath (VII Toledo Canon 1, Vives, Concilios, pp. 249–53) see VIII Toledo Canon ii, ibid. pp. 268–77.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Eugenius, Carmen XXV (B4(b)), pp. 250–1.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Edict of Rothari, 2, tr. K. Fischer Drew, The Lombard Laws (Philadelphia, 1973) p. 53.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    XII Toledo Canon vii, Vives, Concilios (B4(b)), pp. 394–5, and Ervig’s Tome, ibid. p. 383.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Chronicle of Sampiro: — Silos version (B2(d)), p. 344.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    F. Cantera and J.M. Millas Vallicrosa, Las Inscripciones hebráicas de España (Madrid, 1956).Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    L. García Iglesias, Los Judios en la España Antigua (Madrid, 1978) pp. 95–9.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Isidore, H.G. 60 (A2(b)), pp. 27–8; IV Toledo Canon lvii, Vives, Concilios (B4(b)), pp. 210–11.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ibid. pp. 210–14.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    VI Toledo Canon iii, VIII Toledo Canon xii, ibid. pp. 236–7, 285.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Cf. B. Albert, ‘Un nouvel examen de la politique anti-juive wisigothique’, Revue des Ítudes Juives, CXXXV (1976) pp. 4–29.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    L.V. XII. ii. 12–14 (B2(b)), pp. 417–23.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    L.V. XII. ii. 1–11, ibid. pp. 411–17.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    IX Toledo Canon xvii, Vives, Concilios (B4(b)), pp. 305–6.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    L.V. XII. iii. (B2(b)), pp. 429–56.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    E.A. Thompson, The Goths in Spain (A2(b)), pp. 232–3.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    XVI Toledo Canon 1, Vives, Concilios (B4(b)), pp. 497–8.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Ibid. pp. 523–7, 534–6.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    J. Gil (ed.), Miscellanea Wisigothica (Seville, 1972) pp. 48–9.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    F. Dahn (ed.), Die Könige der Germanen, VII (1885) pp. 650–3.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    L.V. XII. ii. 17 (B2(b)), pp. 425–6.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    P.L. LXXXIII, cc. 449–538.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Epistle 3, J. Madoz (ed.), Liciniano de Cartagena y sus cartas (Madrid, 1948) pp. 125–9.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    L.V. XII. ii. 16 (B2(b)), p. 424.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    v Toledo Canon 1, VI Toledo Canon ii, XVII Toledo Canon vi. Vives, Concilios (B4(Jb)), pp. 226–7, 235–6, 532, rising from annual to monthly observance.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    A. Sharf, Byzantine Jewry (London, 1971) pp. 42–60; Fredegar, Chronicle IV. 65, ed. Wallace-Hadrill (London, 1960) p. 54.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Cf. N. Bonwetsch (ed.), Doctrina Iacobi Nuper Baptizali (Berlin, 1910).Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    As in Jerusalem after its fall to the Persians in 614: Antiochus Strategos, Account of the Sack of Jerusalem, trs. F.C. Conybeare, English Historical Review, XXV (1910) pp. 502–17.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    L.V. XII. ii. 18 (B2(b)), pp. 426–7.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    J. Vallvé, ‘España en el Siglo VIII: ejéreito y sociedad’, Al-Andalus, XLIII (1978) pp. 51–112.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    E.A. Thompson, The Goths in Spain (A2(b)), pp. 271–4.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    L.V. IX. i. 9, 16–18 (B2(b)), pp. 356–8, 361–3.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    L.V. VI. i. 3 (B2(b)), pp. 250–1; E.A. Thompson, The Goths in Spain (A2(b)), p. 259.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Roger Collins 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roger Collins

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations