As we have seen in earlier chapters, the nature of knowledge in the psychological discipline has changed considerably over the past 100 years, and always in line with its social context. Schools of thought, methodologies and research techniques reflect their social origins. For example, the ‘armchair science’ of the first, introspectionist psychologists (e.g. James, 1890) reflects the tradition of the Victorian gentleman-researcher, for whom science was an intellectual pursuit and hobby rather than a profession.
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