Empire, War and the Nation-State in East Central Europe
With European nationalism currently approaching its bicentenary, it bears emphasising from the outset that the nationalist upsurge of East Central Europe in the 1990s is not a novel sui generis phenomenon but only the latest — and emphatically not the last — phase in an ongoing historical process. Nationalist business may be unfinished; but the nationalist agenda is long-established. No balanced evaluation of contemporary nationalism in East Central Europe is possible without an appreciation of the cataclysmic impact of twentieth-century war upon the always complex, sometimes contradictory and often paradoxical relationship between empire and nation-state.
KeywordsEurope Shrinkage Turkey Expense Ruthenia
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Notes and References
- 1.Gellner’s pithy definition constitutes the arresting first sentence of his Nations and Nationalism (Oxford: Blackwell, 1983), p. 1.Google Scholar
- 3.Johann Caspar Bluntschli, ‘Die nationale Staatenbildung und der moderne deutsche Staat’, quoted in Peter Alter, Nationalism (London: Edward Arnold, 1989), p. 95.Google Scholar
- 4.Max Weber also quoted in Alter, Nationalism, p. 92.Google Scholar
- 5.For the geopolitical partition of pre-First World War Eastern Europe, see Martin Gilbert, Recent History Atlas: 1860 to 1960 (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1977), maps 1, 5, 6, 7, 8, 13, 22.Google Scholar
- 6.For example, Frederick Hertz, Nationality in History and Politics (New York: Humanities Press Inc, 1944), pp. 217–23.Google Scholar
- 8.A classic exposition of the ‘cohesion thesis’ is G. Simnel, Conflict, and the Web of Group-Affiliation (London: Macmillan, 1964).Google Scholar
- 9.See Gilbert, Recent History Atlas, for the impact on the geopolitical cartography and demography of Eastern Europe of the First World War (maps 32, 34, 36, 37, 38), Russian Civil War (maps 37, 39, 40, 45) and Versailles Settlement (maps 42, 43, 45, 46, 57, 61).Google Scholar
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- 12.For changes in geopolitical cartography effected by the Second World War, see Gilbert, Recent History Atlas, maps 53, 56, 58, 59, 60, 64, 72, 81, 86, 88, 89, 93, 94.Google Scholar