Advertisement

World Horizon: China in the Renaissance, 1350 to 1650

  • S. A. M. Adshead

Abstract

For a history of China focused on Chinese relations with the outside world, the age of the Renaissance must hold a position of exceptional importance. If the modern world system was born in the middle ages with the mutation of Latin Christendom, the Mongolian explosion and the unification of information and disease, it began to walk, indeed leap forward, with the oceanic revolution, the Iberian empires and the first sustained extra-European missionary activity. It is arguable that before Columbus, Magellan and St Francis Xavier, there was no true world history. Philip II was the first planetary ruler in the sense of possessing lands in all four primary civilizations: Europe and America, the Far East and Black Africa. His was the first empire on which the sun never set: he was the true roi soleil of the Egyptomanes. From the sixteenth century there was little doubt that there was going to be a world system or that Western Europe was going to be its centre, as new world institutions, of which the two first were the Atlantic economy of Seville and the Jesuit international, were cantilevered out from it.

Keywords

Seventeenth Century Sixteenth Century World History Teenth Century China Trade 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    For the fall of the Yuan and the rise of the Ming, see John W. Dardess, Conquerors and Confucians. Aspects of Political Change in Late Yuan China (Columbia University Press, New York and London 1973);Google Scholar
  2. L. Carrington Goodrich and Chaoying Fang, Dictionary of Ming Biography, 2 vols (Columbia University Press, New York and London 1976).Google Scholar
  3. 2.
    For the Islamic revival in the West, see Stanford J. Shaw, History of the Ottomon Empire and Modern Turkey. Vol. I. Empire of the Gazis: The Rise and Decline of the Ottoman Empire, 1280–1808 (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1976);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Godfrey Goodwin,A History of Ottoman Architecture (Thames and Hudson, London 1971);Google Scholar
  5. Halil Inalcik, The Ottoman Empire, The Classic Age 1300–1600 (Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London 1973).Google Scholar
  6. 3.
    Pierre Chaunu, L’Amérique et Les Amériques (Librairie Armand Colin, Paris, 1964) p. 57.Google Scholar
  7. 4.
    Fernand Braudel, La Mediterranéen et le monde mediterranéenn à L’époque de Philippe II (Librairie Armand Colin, Paris 1949) p. 624.Google Scholar
  8. 5.
    For late Ming finance, see Ray Huang, Taxation and Goverment Finance in Sixteenth-Century Ming China (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1974).Google Scholar
  9. 6.
    See S.A.M. Adshead, ‘An Energy Crisis in Early Modern China’, Ch’ing-shih Wen-ti, vol. III, no. 2 (December 1974) pp. 20–8.Google Scholar
  10. 7.
    Bartolomé Bennassar, Valladolid au Siècle d’Or (Mouton, Paris, La Haye 1967) pp. 473 – 92.Google Scholar
  11. 8.
    Harold Lamb, Tamerlane, the Earth Shaker (Thornton Butterworth, London 1929) p. 276.Google Scholar
  12. 9.
    E. Delmar Morgan and C.H. Cook (eds) Early Voyages and Travels to Russia and Persia (Hakluyt Society, London 1886) p. 108.Google Scholar
  13. 11.
    Rhodes of Vietnam, The Travels and Mission of Father Alexandre de Rhodes in China and Other Kingdoms of the Orient, Solange Hertz (trans.) (Newman Press, Westminster, Maryland 1966) pp. 226 – 7.Google Scholar
  14. 12.
    W.E.D. Allen, Problems of Turkish Power in the Sixteenth Century (Central Asian Research Centre, London 1963); Braudel, op.cit., pp. 1008–18;Google Scholar
  15. C. Max Kortepeter, Ottoman Imperialism During the Reformation: Europe and the Caucasus (New York University Press, New York 1972).Google Scholar
  16. 13.
    François-Bernard Charmoy, Expedition de Timour-i-lenk (Tamerlane) contre Toqtamiche en 1391 de JC (Academic Imperiale des Sciences de St Petersbourg, 1836, reprinted Phila Press, Amsterdam 1975).Google Scholar
  17. 14.
    Hélène Carrère d’Encausse, ‘Les routes commerciales de l’Asie Centrale et les tentatives de reconquête d’Astrakhan’, Cahiers du Monde Russe et Soviétique, vol. XI (July-September 1970) pp. 391–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 15.
    Louis Dermigny, La Chine et lOccident. Le Commerce à Canton au XVIIIeSiècle 1719–1833, Tome I(S.E.V.P.E.N., Paris 1964) p. 118.Google Scholar
  19. 16.
    M.A.P. Meilink-Roelofsz, Asian Trade and European Influence in the Indonesian Archipelago between 1500 and about 1630 (Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague 1962);Google Scholar
  20. John E. Wills, Jr, Pepper, Guns and Parleys. The Dutch East India Company and China, 1662–1681 (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts 1974).Google Scholar
  21. 17.
    Pierre Chaunu, Les Philippines et Le Pacifique des Ibériques (XVIe XVIIe XVIIIe siècles) (S.E.V.P.E.N., Paris 1960).Google Scholar
  22. 19.
    Huguette Chaunu and Pierre Chaunu, Seville et L’Atlantique (1504–1650), Vol. VIII, Part two, 1, (S.E.V.P.E.N., Paris 1955–59) p. 386.Google Scholar
  23. 20.
    Jean Delumeau, Le Catholicisme entre Luther et Voltaire (P.U.F., Paris 1971) pp. 75–6.Google Scholar
  24. 21.
    Ho Ping-ti, Studies on the Population of China, 1368–1953 (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts 1959) p. 187.Google Scholar
  25. 23.
    Sung Ying-hsing, Tien-kung K’ai-wu, Chinese Technology in the Seventeenth Century, E-tu Zen Sun and Shiou-Chuan Sun (trans.) (Pennsylvania State University Press, Pennsylvania and London 1966).Google Scholar
  26. 24.
    Lord Macartney, An Embassy to China, J.L. Cranmer-Byng (ed.) (Longman, London 1962) p. 225.Google Scholar
  27. 25.
    Calvin Wells, Bones, Bodies and Disease (Thames and Hudson, London 1964) p. 100.Google Scholar
  28. 29.
    Harold F.B. Wheeler, The Story of the British Navy (Harrap, London 1922) p. 121.Google Scholar
  29. 30.
    G.J. Marcus, A Naval History of England. Vol. I, The Formative Centuries (Longman, London, 1961) p. 134.Google Scholar
  30. 32.
    Michel Morineau, ‘Quelques remarques sur l’abondance monétaire aux Provinces-Unies’, Annales, Économies, Sociétés, Civilisations, vol. 29, no. 3 (May June 1974) p. 767.Google Scholar
  31. 33.
    Donald Lach, Asia in the Making of Europe. Vol. II, A Century of Wonder (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London 1970) p. 34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 34.
    Giovanni Botero, The Reason of State and the Greatness of Cities (Routledge and Kegan Paul, London 1956) p. 258.Google Scholar
  33. 38.
    John Carswell, ‘China and the Near East: the recent discovery of Chinese porcelain in Syria’, in William Watson (ed.) The Westward Influence of the Cinese Arts (The University of London Press, London 1972) pp. 20 – 5.Google Scholar
  34. 39.
    Marco Polo, The Travels of Marco Polo (Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, Middlesex 1958) p. 209.Google Scholar
  35. 40.
    Sir Henry Yule, Cathay and the Way Thither, Vol. 1 (Hakluyt Society, London 1915) pp. 290, 295.Google Scholar
  36. 43.
    Jan Nieuhof, An Embassy from the East India Company of The United Provinces to the Grand Tartar Cuam Emperor of China (John Ogilby, London, 1669) appendix p. 86.Google Scholar
  37. 44.
    T.F. Carter, The Invention of Printing in China and its Spread Westward (Columbia University Press, New York 1931).Google Scholar
  38. 47.
    Walter Pagel, Paracelsus, An Introduction to Philosophical Medicine in the Era of the Renaissance (S. Karger, Basel and New York 1958).Google Scholar
  39. 51.
    Jonathan Spence, The China Helpers, Western Advisers in China 1620–1960 (The Bodley Head, London 1969) p. 6.Google Scholar
  40. 52.
    Arthur W. Hummel (ed.) Eminent Chinese of the Ch’ing Period (1644–1912), Vol. II (Government Printing Office, Washington 1943) p. 895.Google Scholar
  41. 55.
    Richard Gascon, Grand commerce et vie urbaine au XVI e siècle, Lyon et ses marchands (environ de 1520-environ de 1580) Vol. 1 (Mouton, Paris, La Haye 1971) p. 339.Google Scholar
  42. 57.
    W.H. Longridge, S.S.J.E. (ed.) The Spiritual Exercises of Saint Ignatius Loyola (Mowbray, London 1955) p. 199.Google Scholar
  43. 59.
    Joseph de Acosta, The Natural and Moral History of the Indies, 2 Vols (Hakluyt Society, London 1880) pp. 532 – 3.Google Scholar
  44. 60.
    José Pereira, ‘Ignazio Arcamone (1615–1683): First Italian Orientalist’, East and West, New Series, Vol. 24, nos. 1–2 (March June 1974) p.153.Google Scholar
  45. For Vieira, see C.R. Boxer, A Great Luso-Brazilian Figure, Padre Antonio Vieira S.J. 1608–1697 (Hispanic and Luso-Brazilian Councils, London 1963).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© S. A. M. Adshead 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. A. M. Adshead
    • 1
  1. 1.University of CanterburyChristchurchNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations