Multilayered Diplomacy and the Canada-US Free Trade Negotiations

  • Brian Hocking


From the discussion in the previous chapter, we can see that in the complex world of contemporary trade diplomacy, subnational actors, such as NCGs, will fulfill a variety of roles, become enmeshed in a web of interactions and involved in diplomatic strategies of both their own and others’ making. In the process, they may be seen to be agents of national foreign policy implementation, a part of central strategy. On the other hand, in pursuit of local interests, they may be hostile to national goals and cause international negotiations to unravel at crucial stages. However relationships between the representatives of national and subnational interests develop, whether these are conflictual, cooperative or, as is more likely, a mixture of the two, what is certain is that the task of reconciling domestic and international demands in the context of trade negotiations, of conducting a multilayered diplomacy, is a taxing one. This fact is amply demonstrated in the context of the Canada-US free trade negotiations (FTN) which are the subject of this chapter. What roles did the Canadian provinces and the US states assume as the negotiations proceeded and what patterns of interactions between the respective central and non-central actors developed?


Free Trade Trade Policy Free Trade Agreement Trade Negotiation Dispute Settlement Mechanism 
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Copyright information

© Brian Hocking 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian Hocking
    • 1
  1. 1.Coventry UniversityUK

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