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Conclusions: No Simple Answers

  • Peter H. Merkl
Part of the St Antony’s/Macmillan Series book series

Abstract

The image that is conjured up by the Meiji Japanese slogan to ‘build a rich country ...,’ and its post-World War II version with or without a strong army, raises some obvious questions: How does such a building process begin and how is the maintenance or adaptation of the structure to the changing needs of the inhabitants performed? Who does the architectural design, who carries it out, and who maintains or adapts the building in response to changing internal demands and external challenges? The house-building and house-adapting analogy clearly raises the questions of the political management of economic change that have been raised in this volume and its sequel with regard to postwar Japan and the Federal Republic of Germany.

Keywords

Labour Market Monetary Policy Collective Bargaining Money Supply Economic Change 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 1.
    On the reform proposals of the American occupation and their fate, see, especially, Edward H. Litchfield et al., Governing Postwar Germany (Ithaca: NY: Cornell University Press, 1953). In a manner of speaking, division into a communist East and a liberal-democratic, capitalist West was Germany’s ‘veritable revolution’, because the Soviet occupation and the German Communist government carried out a sweeping land reform, including the expropriation of East Elbian estates, and a series of other structural reforms. There is large literature on these reforms and their intent to bring the East German bourgeoisie under ‘proletarian’ domination: for example,Google Scholar
  2. 1a.
    J. P. Nettl, The Eastern Zone and Soviet Policy in Germany, 1945–1950 (London: Oxford University Press, 1951),Google Scholar
  3. 1b.
    or Mike Dennis, German Democratic Republic (London: Pinter, 1988).Google Scholar
  4. 2.
    On the aims and triumphs of the Marshall Plan, see also Stanley Hoffman and Charles Maier (eds), The Marshall Plan: A Retrospective (Boulder, Col.: Westview Press, 1984)Google Scholar
  5. 2a.
    and John Gimbel, The Origins of the Marshall Plan (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1976), and the sources cited there.Google Scholar
  6. 4.
    On the nexus between defence dependency and economic relations, see, especially, James C. Sperling, ‘The FRG, the US, and the Atlantic Economy’, in Peter H. Merkl (ed.), The Federal Republic at Forty (New York: New York University Press, 1989).Google Scholar
  7. 6.
    See Bradley M. Richardson and Scott C. Flanagan, Politics in Japan (Boston: Little, Brown, 1984) pp. 398–404. By 1977 American wage levels were at 122 per cent and the West German one at 116 per cent of the Japanese average, and by now the Japanese are no longer at an advantage, at least not in key industries.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    One CDU Minister President, Albrecht of Lower Saxony, presented such a programme in 1983 and encountered determined opposition within his own party. See Peter Katzenstein, Policy and Politics in West Germany: The Growth of a Semisovereign State (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1987) pp. 120–22.Google Scholar
  9. 12.
    T. J. Pempel, Policy and Politics in Japan: Creative Conservatism (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1982) p. 13.Google Scholar
  10. 14.
    See Stephen Schier and Norman Vig, ‘Macro-economic Policies in Britain and the United States’, in N. Vig and S. Schier (eds), Political Economy in Western Democracies (New York and London: Holmes & Meier, 1985) pp. 178–9.Google Scholar
  11. 23.
    On the postwar ‘recasting of bourgeois Europe’, see, especially, Charles S. Maier (ed.), The Origins of the Cold War and Contemporary Europe (New York: New Viewpoints, 1978), who earlier addressed himself to the same theme regarding the post-World War One era, in Recasting Bourgeois Europe (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1975).Google Scholar
  12. 23a.
    See also Alan Milward The Reconstruction of Postwar Europe (London: Methuen, 1984),Google Scholar
  13. 23b.
    and John L. Gaddis, The United States and the Origins of the Cold War 1941–1947 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1972).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Haruhiro Fukui and Peter H. Merkl 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter H. Merkl

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