Advertisement

Service, Landholding, and Dependent Labour in Kozlov District, 1675

  • Brian Davies

Abstract

The fate of the middle service class odnodvortsy* of Muscovy’s southern frontier — their subjection to the soul tax and juridical equation with the state peasants — is by now well known. The term odnodvorets (single-householder) originally described a purely economic condition: the odnodvorets supported himself in military service without serf labour, even though as a member of the middle service class he had the right to own serfs. Most odnodvortsy had small economies. In the first half of the seventeenth century, the principal means by which state policy introduced or increased economic stratification among them was the act of ‘initiation’ (verstanie), by which a serviceman’s service capacity was graded and he was assigned the appropriate land and cash entitlement rates for his remuneration. Some households were richer than others in land, household labour, livestock and material inventory, but military chancellery policy was responsible only for their differentiation into initiated (verstanyi) and uninitiated (neverstanyi) conditions, and within the former condition, for their differentiation by land and cash entitlement rates (oklady) and actual pomest’e grants. Such differentiation occurred on an individual basis, according to appraisal of each man’s capacity. Otherwise, in the eyes of the state, the deti boiarskie odnodvortsy were an undifferentiated mass, having in common their lack of peasant labour and votchina land; they were subject to the same limited number of cash dues (post system money, captive ransom money, and so forth), and were not yet divided into separate permanent formations for regimental and town service (polkovaia sluzhba and gorodovaia sluzhba).

Keywords

Service Class Service Formation Minimum Subsistence Landless Peasant Actual Grant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    V. M. Vazhinskii, Sel’skoe khoziaistvo v chernozemnom tsentre Rossii v XVII veke (Voronezh, 1983) p. 77.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Among those relegated to the ranks of taxpayers were regimental cavalrymen and infantrymen no longer in active service, with their kinsmen. M. D. Rabinovich, ‘Sud’by sluzhilykh liudei “starykh sluzhb” v periode formirovaniia reguliarnoi russkoi armii y nachale XVIII veka’ (Candidate’s dissertation, Moskovskii gos. istoriko-arkhivnyi institut, 1953) p. 513;Google Scholar
  3. M. Klochkov, Naselenie Rossii pri Petre velikom po perepisiam togo vremeni. Tom pervyi. Perepisi dvorov i naseleniia, 1678–1721 (SPb, 1911) p. 54;Google Scholar
  4. V. M. Vazhinskii, ‘Vvedenie podushnogo oblozheniia na iuge Rossii v 90-kh godakh XVII v.’, Izvestiia Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo pedagogicheskogo instituta, vol. 127 (1973) pp. 97, 99. See Carol Steven’s chapter, below, for more on these and related matters.Google Scholar
  5. 8.
    V. M. Vazhinskii, Zemlevladenie i skladyvanie obshchiny odnodvortsev v XVII v. (Voronezh, 1974) p. 111.Google Scholar
  6. 14.
    P. I. Piskarev, Sobranie materialov dlia istorii zapadnogo kraia Tambovskoi gubernii i eparkhii (Tambov, 1878) pp. 73–4.Google Scholar
  7. 15.
    V. P. Zagorovskii, ‘Formirovanie i zaselenie Kozlovskogo uezda v XVII veke’, Iz istorii voronezhskogo kraia no. 3 (1969) pp. 101–2;Google Scholar
  8. L. V. Cherepnin, ‘Klassovaia bor’ba v 1682 g. na iuge Moskovskogo gosudarstva’, Istoricheskie zapiski vol. 4 (1938) p. 43; Prikaznyi stol, stb. no. 524, p. 104.Google Scholar
  9. 19.
    S. B. Veselovskii, ‘Smety voennykh sil Moskovskogo gosudarstva, 1661–1663 gg’. Chteniia v obshchestve istorii i drevnostei rossiiskikh pri Moskovskom universitete, no. 3 (1911) p. 38.Google Scholar
  10. 20.
    This sample excludes only the venue of Ilovaiskii bailliage (Prikaznyi stol, stb. no. 697); it represents 86 per cent of the middle service class men (including pomestnye atamany) in town service, regimental service, and retirement according to the 1673–4 inspection. Labourers under the age of 15 years, crippled, half-witted, blind, or superannuated are here counted as 0.5 of a healthy adult. On the juridical status of the zadvornye liudi and delovye liudi, see R. Hellie, Slavery in Russia, 1450–1725 (Chicago and London, 1982) p. 499, andGoogle Scholar
  11. M. D’iakonov, Ocherki iz istorii sel’skogo naseleniia v Moskovskom gosudarstve XVI-XVII vv. (SPb., 1898) pp. 244–82. On the priemyshi — adults contractually ‘adopted’ into the household as additional labourers — see Vazhinskii, Sel’skoe khoziaistvo, p. 42.Google Scholar
  12. 22.
    V. P. Zagorovskii, Belgorodskaia cherta (Voronezh, 1969) pp. 261–7.Google Scholar
  13. 27.
    V. P. Zagorovskii, ‘Zemledel’cheskoe naselenie v pridonskikh uezdakh na belgorodskoi cherte v seredine XVII v. i voznikovenie pervykh sel “za chertoi”’, Ezhegodnik po agrarnoi istorii vostochnoi Evropy, 1964 (1966) p. 203.Google Scholar
  14. 28.
    N. Novombergskii, Ocherki vnutrennego upravleniia v Moskovskoi Rusi XVII st. Prodovol’stvennoe stroenie, Materialy, vol. 1, no. 583 (Tomsk, 1914) pp. 584–5. The Kozlov payment books used the priemnaia chetvert’ pod greblo, also called the moskovskaia tamozhennaia chetvert’, which weighed 7.7 pudy (one pud= 16.38 kg) of sifted rye flour or 7.35 pudy of unsifted rye flour (here, averaged as 7.5 pudy). One chetvert’ of rye flour produced 120.3 kg. of baked bread.Google Scholar
  15. V. P. Zagorovskii, ‘Sudostroenie na Donu i ispol’zovanie Rossieiu donskogo parusnogogrebnogo flota v bor’be protiv Krymskogo khanstva i Turtsii’ (Candidate’s dissertation, Voronezhskii gos. universitet, 1961) pp. 80–1;Google Scholar
  16. R. E. F. Smith, Peasant Farming in Muscovy (Cambridge, 1977) p. 158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 41.
    I. N. Miklashevskii, K istorii khoziaistvennago byta Moskovskogo gosudarstva. Chast’ pervaia. Zaselenie i sel’skoe khoziaistvo iuzhnoi okrainy XVII veka (Moscow, 1874) p. 62.Google Scholar
  18. 47.
    V. M. Vazhinskii, ‘Usilenie soldatskoi povinnosti v Rossii v XVII v. (Po materialam iuzhnykh uezdov)’, Izvestiia Voronezhskogo gos. ped. instituta, vol. 127 (1973) pp. 57, 59–62;Google Scholar
  19. V. P. Zagorovskii, ‘Soldatskie sela i soldatskoe zemlevladenie v voronezhskom krae XVII veka’, Iz istorii voronezhskogo kraia, vol. 4 (1972) p. 96.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Council for Soviet and East European Studies, and Lindsey Hughes 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian Davies

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations