Nations, Republics and Commonwealth
Writing just as the Second World War was ending, the distinguished analyst and historian of Russia, E. H. Carr, asserted: ‘In Europe some of the small units of the past may continue for a few generations longer to eke out a precarious, independent existence … But their military and economic insecurity has been demonstrated beyond recall. They can survive only as an anomaly and an anachronism in a world which has moved on to other forms of organization.’ He reasoned that, ‘just as the movement for religious toleration followed the devastating religious wars of the 16th and 17th centuries, so the movement for national toleration will spring... from the destructive 20th century wars of nationalism’ (1945, pp. 37, 66).
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