Polish—Ukrainian Relations in 1918: Notes for Discussion

  • Roman Szporluk
Part of the Studies in Russia and East Europe book series (SREE)


In his paper titled ‘International Circumstances of Poland’s Recovery of Her Independence in 1918’, Professor Henryk Batowski drew an original distinction. Batowski first reviewed the international conditions or factors, that is, the role of Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary, and the Western Allies, in the events that led to Poland’s becoming an independent state. He then differentiated from this aspect of history the inter-national (or inter-nationality) dimension of the same process of Poland’s state-building. (In Batowski’s original Polish, the distinction was made between międzynarodowe and między-narodowe ‘warunki odzyskania niepodległości przez Polskę’.) Batowski placed the Ukrainian and Lithuanian relations with Poland, as well as the Czech—Polish involvement in the Cieszyn/Těśín area, in the latter category. In reponse to a question from the floor, Professor Batowski added that the Jewish—Polish relationship had not even been perceived at that time as an inter-nationality problem that was comparable to the other ones mentioned. But he added that it, too, eventually became one as negotiations leading to the peace treaties went on and the Jewish question was considered in Paris.1


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  1. 2.
    There seems to exist only one general book wholly devoted to the discussion of the subject: Peter J. Potichnyj, ed., Poland and Ukraine: Past and Present (Edmonton and Toronto: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, 1980).Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    It would be impossible in an essay like this one to support with proper citations the statements of fact and opinion on Polish history in the nineteenth century which are expressed here. The author hopes to do it more adequately in a revised and much expanded version. He wishes to acknowledge, however, his debt not only to the general works on modern Polish history, whose authors do not need to be named here, but also to that remarkable series of volumes titled Polska myśl polityczna XIX i XX wieku, four vols 1–2 and 4–5 of which were edited by the late Professor Henryk Zieliński, and the sixth — the last to come out — by Wojciech Krzesiński: Henryk Zieliński ed., Polska ijej sąiedzi, Wrocław: Ossolineum, 1975Google Scholar
  3. Henryk Zieliłski, ed., Twórty polskiej myśli politycznej: Zbiór studiów, Wrocław: Ossolineum, 1978Google Scholar
  4. Henryk Zieliłski, ed., Na warsztatach historyków polskiej myśli politycznej, Wrocław: Ossolineum, 1980Google Scholar
  5. Henryk Zieliłski, ed., W kręou tworców polskiej myśli politycznej, Wrocław: Ossolineum, 1983.Google Scholar
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  8. The transformations of Polish national identity are discussed in a broader framework of ‘crises of political development’, in Roman Szporluk, ‘Poland’, in Raymond Grew, ed., Crises of Political Development in Europe and the United States, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1978), pp. 383–418.Google Scholar
  9. 4.
    Quoted by Andrzej Chojnowski, ‘Problem narodowościowy na ziemiach polskich w początkach XX w. oraz w II Rzeczypospolitej.’ in Andrzej Garlicki, ed., Z dziejów Drugiej Rzeczypospolitej, (Warsaw: Wydawnictwa Szkolne i Pedagogiczne, 1986), p. 180.Google Scholar
  10. The processes of formation of modern nations in Central and Eastern Europe are discussed in relation to social change by Miroslav Hroch, Social Preconditions of National Revival in Europe: A Comparative Analysis of Patriotic Groups among the Smaller European Nations, trans. by Ben Fowkes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985).Google Scholar
  11. Roman Szporluk, Communism and Nationalism: Karl Marx versus Friedrich List, (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988)Google Scholar
  12. 5.
    But it should be noted that an analogous process of ethnic secession by the Slovaks from the historic Hungarian nation was taking place while the Hungarians controlled the Slovaks. See Peter Brock, The Slovak National Awakening: An essay in the Intellectual History of East Central Europe. (Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1976).Google Scholar
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  14. Jan Kozik, The Ukrainian National Movement in Galicia: 1815–1849, ed. by Lawrence D. Orton, trans, from the Polish by Andrew Gorski and Lawrence D. Orton (Edmonton: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, 1986)Google Scholar
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  18. Ivan L. Rudnytsky, Essays in Modern Ukrainian History, ed. by Peter L. Rudnytsky (Cambridge, Mass.: Ukrainian Research Institute, distr. by Harvard University Press, 1987)Google Scholar
  19. John-Paul Himka, Galician Villagers and the Ukrainian National Movement in the Nineteenth Century, (Edmonton: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, 1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 8.
    Russian views of the Ukrainian problem are briefly discussed in Roman Szporluk, ‘The Ukraine and Russia’, in Robert Conquest, ed., The Last Empire: Nationality and the Soviet Future, (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1986), pp. 151–82.Google Scholar
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  23. 9.
    Piotr S. Wandycz, ‘Z zagadnień współpracy polsko-ukraińskiej w latach 1919–1920’, in his Polska a zagranica, (Paris: Instytut Literacki, 1986), pp. 18–39.Google Scholar
  24. 10.
    Roman Dmowski, Polityka polska i odbudowanie panstwa, 2nd edn (Warsaw: Perzynski, Niklewicz i Ska, 1926), p. 398.Google Scholar

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© School of Slavonic and East European Studies 1992

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  • Roman Szporluk

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