The Ancient Chinese View

  • Evan Luard


Some of the earliest writings about relations among states date from more than two thousand years ago. Three or four centuries bc there existed, both in China and in Greece, societies of states which shared a similar language and culture, had regular contact with each other and engaged in frequent conflict. In both areas the philosophers of the age debated the type of political system within states which would best promote the welfare of their citizens. In doing so they also considered, at least in passing, the kind of relationship which should be established among states.


Manifold Assure Expense Military Position Triad 


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© the estate of Evan Luard 1992

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  • Evan Luard

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