European Pillars in the 1980s
As discussed in the preceding chapters, by the 1980s the ec’s mechanisms for political cooperation had helped to achieve some notable successes in articulating independent European positions on specific issues, often either at variance with or in direct conflict with those of the United States. Beginning with the 1973/74 Atlantic crisis, Europeans started utilising the newly established procedures for political cooperation as a framework for concerting and articulating what they regarded as distinctively European interests on the issues at hand. However, the effectiveness of European Political Cooperation was often impaired by internal disagreements among EC governments, the inefficient machinery of political cooperation, and by strategic dependence on the United States which discouraged the pursuit of initiatives to the point of risking a damaging break with Washington.
KeywordsEurope Shipping Coherence Assure Turkey
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