The EC, EPC and the Decline of Bipolarity

  • Panos Tsakaloyannis


The fortunes of European Political Cooperation (EPC), since its inception in the early 1970s, have been inextricably linked with the vagaries of the international environment, in particular the twists and turns in the relations between the superpowers. In fact EPC’s emergence was critically facilitated by the major shifts in global politics brought about by superpower crises of the late 1960s – the Soviet Union’s intervention in Czechoslovakia and the United States’ Tet offensive in Vietnam. These crises, plus the May 1968 events in France, had a cumulative effect on the politics of Western Europe: they put an end to internal divisions, pioneered Community enlargement and, consequently, political cooperation, a subject which had remained d+ormant since the failure of the Fouchet talks in the early 1960s.


Foreign Policy German Reunification Political Cooperation European Foreign Policy German Question 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Brzezinski, Z. (1988) ‘America’s New Geostrategy’, Foreign Affairs, vol. 66–4.Google Scholar
  2. Bull, H. (1982) ‘Civilian power Europe: a contradiction in terms’, Journal of Common Market Studies, vol. 21.Google Scholar
  3. Calleo, D. (1988) Beyond American Hegemony: the Future of the Western Alliance (Brighton, Wheatsheaf Books).Google Scholar
  4. De Porte, A. W. (1979) Europe Between the Super Powers: The Enduring Balance (New Heaven, Yale University Press).Google Scholar
  5. Ginsberg, R. (1989) ‘The EC and the United States’ in J. Lodge (ed.) (1989), The European Community and the Challenges of the Future (London, Pinter).Google Scholar
  6. Grosser, A. (1978) Les Occidentaux: Les Pays d’Europe et les Etats-Unis Depuis la Guerre (Paris, Fayard).Google Scholar
  7. Hartley, A. (1989) ‘After 1992: Multiple Choice’, National Interest, vol. 15 (spring).Google Scholar
  8. Hassner, P. (1986) ‘Europe Between the United States and the Soviet Union’ Government and Opposition, vol. 21–1.Google Scholar
  9. Hassner, P. (1987) ‘A View from Paris’ in L. Gordon (ed.) (1987), Eroding Empires: Western Relations with Eastern Europe (Washington, Brookings).Google Scholar
  10. Hoffmann, S. (1974) ‘Toward a Common European Foreign Policy?’ in W. Hanreider (ed.) (1974), The United States and Western Europe (Cambridge, Mass, Winthrop).Google Scholar
  11. Holland, M. (1988) The European Community and South Africa: European Political Cooperation under Strain (London, Pinter).Google Scholar
  12. Howard, M. (1987/8) ‘A European Perspective on the Reagan Years’, Foreign Affairs, vol. 66–3.Google Scholar
  13. Kennedy, P. (1988) The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000 (London, Unwin Hyman).Google Scholar
  14. Kissinger, H. (1979) The White House Years (Boston, Little Brown).Google Scholar
  15. Luard, E. (1986) ‘A European Foreign Policy?’, International Affairs, vol. 62–4.Google Scholar
  16. Nuttall, S. (1987) ‘Interaction Between European Political Cooperation and the European Community’, Yearbook of European Law, vol. 7.Google Scholar
  17. Pereira, P., Sanchez da Costa (1988) ‘The Use of a Secretariat’ in A. Pijpers, E. Regelsberger, W. Wessels and G. Edwards (eds) (1988), Political Cooperation in the 1980s: A Common Foreign Policy for Western Europe? (Dordrecht, Martinus Nijhoff).Google Scholar
  18. Pescatore, P. (1987) ‘Some Critical Remarks on the Single European Act’, Common Market Law Review, vol. 24–1.Google Scholar
  19. Pijpers, A. (1984) ‘European Political Cooperation and the CSCE Process’, Legal Issues of European Integration, no. 1.Google Scholar
  20. Schaetzel, R. (1975) The Unhinged Alliance: America and the European Community (New York, Harper and Row).Google Scholar
  21. Schoutheete, P. de (1980) La Cooperation Politique Européene (Brussels, Labor).Google Scholar
  22. Schulz, E. (1984) ‘Unfinished Business: The German National Question and the Future of Europe’, International Affairs, vol. 60–3.Google Scholar
  23. Steel, R. (1988) ‘Europe’s Superpower Problem’, SAIS Review, vol. 8.Google Scholar
  24. Stirk, P. (ed.) (1989) European Unity in Context: The Interwar Period (London, Pinter).Google Scholar
  25. Tsakaloyannis, P. (1987) ‘Political Constraints for an Effective Community Foreign Policy* in J. K. de Vree, P. Coffey, and R. H. Lauwaars (eds) (1987), Towards a European Foreign Policy (Dordrecht, Martinus Nijhoff).Google Scholar
  26. Tsakaloyannis, P. (1989) ‘The EC: From Civilian Power to Military Integration* in J. Lodge (ed.) (1989), The European Community and the Challenge of the Future (London, Pinter).Google Scholar
  27. Wallerstein, I. (1988) ‘European Unity and its Implications for the International System’ in B. Hettne (ed.) (1988), Europe: Dimensions of Peace (London, Zed Books).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martin Holland 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Panos Tsakaloyannis

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations