Policy Issues

  • Shulamit Ramon
Part of the Issues in Mental Health book series (IMH)


Ideas concerning the right of people with disabilities to an ordinary life have been proposed as policy directions in the recent past throughout the Western world, with the introduction of the deinstitutionalisation principle as part of community care policies. However, only in Denmark and Sweden have the principles of normalisation and SRV become part of official policy.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Wolfe, B.L., Impacts of Disability and Some Policy Implications (Madison, Wis.: Institute for Research on Poverty, 1979); Townsend, P., The Government Must Do Its Sums Better on Disability (London: Disability Alliance, 1981).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Smith, M., Disability in Great Britain (London: OPCS, 1989).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Glennerster, H. (ed.) The Future of the Welfare State: Remaking Social Policy (London: Heinemann, 1983); Flora, P. and Heidenheimer, A.J. (eds), The Development of Welfare States in Europe (New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1981).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Robinson, D. and Henry, S., Self Help and Health: Mutual Aid for Modern Problems (London: Robertson, 1977); Gartley, C., Managing Incontinence (London: Souvenir Books, 1989).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Andrain, C.F., Social Policies in Western Industrial Societies (Berkeley: Institute of International Studies, University of California, 1985).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ward, L. ‘Blinded by the Light’, Community Care, 19 July 1990, pp. 18–19.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hall, P., Land, H., Webb, A. and Parker, R., Change, Choice and Conflict in Social Policy (London: Heinemann, 1975).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brown, P., The Transfer of Care (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1985).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tranchina, P. and Basaglia, F. (eds), Autobiografia diun Movimento, 1961–1979 (Ammistrazione Provinciale di Arezzo, 1979); Scull, A., Decarceration (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1975).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brost, M. and Johnson, T., Getting to Know You (Madison, Wis.: Wisconsin Coalition for Advocacy and New Concepts for the Handicapped Foundation, 1982).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mount, B., Beeman, P. and Ducharme, G., What Are We Learning About Circles of Support? (Connecticut: Communitas, 1988).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Del Giudice, G., Evaristo, P. and Reali, M., ‘How Can Mental Hospitals be Phased Out?’ in Ramon, S. (ed.). Psychiatry in Transition (London: Pluto Press, 1988) pp. 199–207; Rotelli, F., ‘Changing Psychiatric Services in Italy’, ibid., pp. 182–90; De Nicola, P., Giacobbi, E. and Rogialli, S., ‘Changing Professional Roles in the Italian Psychiatric System’, ibid., pp. 235–42.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mauri, D., La Liberta E Terapeutica? (Rome: Fletrinelli, 1984).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    See Brown, P. in 7 above and: Reid, H. and Wiseman, A., When the Talking Has to Stop (London: MIND, 1986).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brangwyn, G., ‘Constructing a Crisis-focused Social Service’, in Ramon, S. (ed.) Psychiatry in Transition, 11 above, pp. 49–59. For a different approach concerning alternatives to asylums see also: Del’Acqua, G. and Mezzina, R., ‘Approaching Mental Distress’, ibid., pp. 60–71.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sain, F., Norcio, B. and Malannino, S. ‘Compulsory Health Treatment: The Experience in Trieste from 1978 to 1988’, in For Mental Health: Practices, Research, Cultures in the Process of Innovation, vol.4, Regional Centre for Mental Health Studies, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, 1990, pp. 137–52.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wolfensberger, W., ‘Social Role Valorisation: A Proposed New Term for the Principle of Normalisation’, Mental Retardation, vol.21, no.6, 1983, pp. 234–9.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stark, J.A., McGee. J.J. and Menolascino, F.J., International Handbook of Community Services for the Mentally Retarded (Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1984).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bank-Mikkelson, N.E., ‘A Metropolitan Area in Denmark: Copenhagen’, in Kugel, R. (ed.), Changing Patterns of Residential Services for the Mentally Retarded (Washington DC: President’s Committee for the Mentally Retarded, 1969) pp. 241–52.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    See 18 above, p. 113.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Brandon, D. and Towe, N. Free to Choose: An Introduction to Service Brokerage (London: Good Impressions, 1989).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hennelly, R., ‘Mental Health Resource Centres’, in Ramon, S. (ed.), Psychiatry in Transition, see 9 above, pp. 208–18.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cuvo, A.J. and Davis, P.K., ‘Home Living for Developmentally Disabled Persons: Instructional Design and Evaluation’, Exceptional Education Quarterly, vol.2, no.1, 1981, pp. 87–98; Flynn, M., ‘Independent Living Arrangements for Adults Who Are Mentally Handicapped’, in Malin, N. (ed.), Community Care Reassessed (London: Croom Helm, 1987) pp. 302–22; Rioux, M. and Crawford, C., Choices: The Community Living Concept as a Way of Thinking (Vancouver: Community Living Society, 1982).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kay, A. and Legg, C., Discharged to the Community: A Review of Housing and Support in London for People Leaving Psychiatric Care (London: City University, 1985).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    See 12 above.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Garety, P., ‘Housing’, in Lavender, A. and Holloway, F. (eds), Community Care in Practice: Services for the Continuing Care Client (London: Wiley, 1988) pp. 143–60.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Brazil, R. and Carle, N., ‘An Ordinary Home Life’, in Towell, D. (ed.), An Ordinary Life in Practice (London: King Edward’s Hospital Fund for London, 1988) pp. 59–67.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Meyer, L.H. and Kishi, G.S., ‘School Integration Strategies’, in Lakin, K.C. and Bruininks, R.H. (eds), Strategies for Achieving Community Integration of Developmentally Disabled Citizens (Baltimore: Paul Brooks, 1985) pp. 231–52; OECD, The Education of the Handicapped Adolescent: Integration of Handicapped Children in Italy (Paris: OCED, 1979).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Salvi, E. and Cecchini, M., ‘Children with Handicaps in Ordinary Schools’, in Ramon, S. (ed.), Psychiatry in Transition, see 9 above, pp. 138–46.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Glendinning, C., Unshared Care: Parents and Their Disabled Children (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1983); Lahousnia, Z., The Meaning of Mental Handicap and Community Care: Moslem and Non-Moslem ParentsPerspectives, unpublished Ph.D. thesis, the London School of Economics, 1989.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Warner, R., Recovery from Schimphrenia (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1987).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tudor, K., ‘The Politics of Disability in Italy: La Lega per il Diritto al Lavoro degli Handicappati’, Critical Social Policy, 1988, pp. 37–54.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vox Employment Service, The Base Document and Committee Report, London Borough of Hillingdon, 1989.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Olshansky, S., ‘Vocational Behaviour Through Normalisation’, in Wolfensberger, W. (ed.), Normalisation: The Principle of Normalisation in Human Services (Toronto: National Institute for Medical Research, 1972) pp. 151–63; Di Mascio, A., ‘La Riproduzione Sociale Dell‘utenza’, in Righetti, A. (ed.), La Questione Psichiatrica (Pordenone: Centro Studie Salute Mentale, 1988) pp. 253–6; Sikking, M., Co-ops with a Difference: WorkersCo-ops for People with Special Needs (London: ICOM Co-publications, London, 1986).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pilling, S., ‘Work and the Continuing Care Client’, in Lavender, A. and Holloway, F. (ed.), Community Care in Practice, see 20 above, pp. 187–205; Porterfield, J., ‘Promoting Opportunities for Employment’, in Towell, D. (ed.), An Ordinary Life in Practice (London: King’s Fund Publications, 1988) pp. 80–9.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sherman, P.S. and Porter, R., ‘The Colorado Consumer Case-manager Aide Program’, Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, 1990.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sainsbury, S., Deaf Worlds (London: Hutchinson, 1986).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tihanyi, P., Volunteers: Why They Come and Why They Stay. A Study of the Motives and Rewards of Volunteers Working in a Jewish Day Centre, M.A. thesis, Centre for the Management of Voluntary Organisations, Brunel University, 1988.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    PSSRU, Care in the Community, Summer 1985, the University of Kent, Canterbury.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    See 30 above.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cox, G.B., ‘Programme Evaluation’, in Austin, M.J. and Hershey, W.E. (eds), Handbook on Mental Health Administration (San Francisco: Jossey Bass, 1982).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wolfensberger, W. and Glenn, L., PASS-Programme Analysis of Service Systems, 3rd edn (Toronto, Institute of Mental Retardation, 1975); Wolfensberger, W. and Thomas, S., PASSING-Programme Analysis of Service SystemsImplementation of Normalisation Goals (Toronto: National Institute on Mental Retardation, 1983).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tyne, A., ‘Shaping Community Services: The Impact of an Idea’, in Malin, N. (ed.), Community Care Reassessed (London: Croom Helm, pp. 80–96).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    See 18 above.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sainsbury, S., Regulating Residential Care (Aldershot: Avebury, 1989); The Royal College of Psychiatrists, Mental Health Services in Britain: The Way Ahead (London: Gaskell, 1986) pp. 102–10.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Korman, N. and Glennerster, H., Hospital Closure (Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1990) pp. 144–57.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    See 18 above, pp. 206–17.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Shiell, A. and Wright, K., ‘The Economic Costs’, in Alaszewski, A. and Ong, B.N. (eds), Normalisation in Practice (London: Tavistock, 1990) pp. 249–66.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Beecham, J. and Knapp, M., ‘The Costs of Psychiatric Reprovision: Community Care for Former Long-stay Hospital Residents’, Discussion Paper 653, Personal Social Services Research Unit, University of Kent, January 1990.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Challis, L. (ed.), Joint Approaches to Social Policy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mahoney, J., ‘Finance and Government Policy’, in Lavender, A. and Holloway, F. (eds), Community Care in Practice. Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Capitman, J.A., Haskins, B. and Bernstein, J., ‘Case Management Approaches in Coordinated Community-oriented Long-term Care Demonstrations’, The Gerontologist, vol.26, no.4, 1986; Hunter, D.J. (ed.), Bridging the Gap: Case Management and Advocacy for People with Physical Handicaps (London: King’s Fund Publications, 1988); Clifford, P. and Craig, T., Case Management Systems for Long-term Mentally Ill (London: National Unit for Psychiatric Research and Development, 1989); Beardshaw, V. and Towell, D., Assessment and Care Management: Implications for the Implementation ofCaring for People’ (London: King’s Fund Institute, I990). For the best American example of case management see: Test, M.A., ‘The Training in Community Living Model: Delivering Treatment and Rehabilitation Services Through a Continuous Treatment Team’, in Liberman, R.P. (ed.), Rehabilitation of the Seriously Mentally Ill (New York: Plenum, 1987). Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Salisbury, B., Dickey, J. and Crawford, C., Service Brokerage: Individual Empowerment and Social Service Accountability (Downsview, Ontario: The G. Allan Roeher Institute, 1987). Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    See 45 above.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bachrach, L., The Lessons Learnt from Demonstration Projects in the US, paper given at the Good Practices in Mental Health study day on British Mental Health Demonstration Projects, London, 10 November 1988; Georgiades, N.J. and Phillimore, L., ‘The Myth of the Hero-Innovator and Alternative Strategies for Organisational Change’, in Kiernan, C.C. and Woodford, E.P. (eds), Behaviour Modification with the Severely Retarded (Amsterdam: Elsevier, Associated Scientific Publishers, 1975); Renshaw, J., ‘The Future of Demonstration Projects, New Directions’, Good Practices in Mental Health, Summer 1989, pp. 2–3.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Blunden, R., ‘Safeguarding Quality’, in Towell, D. (ed.), An Ordinary Life in Practice (London: King Edward’s Hospital Fund for London) pp. 106–16. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Shulamit Ramon 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shulamit Ramon

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations